Le rapport Beveridge traduit

vendredi 14 mai 2010
popularité : 47%

D’assurance sociale et services connexes

Report by Sir William Beveridge Rapport Beveridge Sir William

Presented to Parliament by Command of His Majesty Présenté au Parlement par le commandement de Sa Majesté

November 1942 Novembre 1942

HMSO HMSO

CMND 6404 Cmnd 6404

What follows is what would these days be called an executive summary of the report, together with the detailed section on Assumptions, Methods and Principles. Ce qui suit est ce qui allait être appelé ces jours-ci un résumé du rapport, en collaboration avec la section détaillée sur les hypothèses, méthodes et principes. The full report runs to 300 pages. Le rapport complet fonctionne à 300 pages.

THREE GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF RECOMMENDATIONS TROIS PRINCIPES DIRECTEURS DES RECOMMANDATIONS

6. 6. In proceeding from this first comprehensive survey of social insurance to the next task - of making recommendations - three guiding principles may be laid down at the outset. En procédant de cette première enquête globale de l’assurance sociale à la tâche suivante - de formuler des recommandations - trois principes directeurs peuvent être fixées dès le départ.

7. 7. The first principle is that any proposals for the future, while they should use to the full the experience gathered in the past, should not be restricted by consideration of sectional interests established in the obtaining of that experience. Le premier principe est que toutes les propositions pour l’avenir, alors qu’ils devraient utiliser pleinement l’expérience acquise dans le passé, ne devrait pas être limité par l’examen des intérêts sectoriels établis dans l’obtention de cette expérience. Now, when the war is abolishing landmarks of every kind, is the opportunity for using experience in a clear field. Maintenant, quand la guerre est la suppression monuments de toute nature, est l’occasion d’utiliser l’expérience dans un champ libre. A revolutionary moment in the world’s history is a time for revolutions, not for patching. Un moment révolutionnaire dans le monde de l’histoire de la ya un temps pour les révolutions, pas pour le colmatage.

8. 8. The second principle is that organisation of social insurance should be treated as one part only of a comprehensive policy of social progress. Le deuxième principe est que l’organisation de l’assurance sociale doivent être traités comme une seule partie d’une politique globale de progrès social. Social insurance fully developed may provide income security ; it is an attack upon Want. d’assurance sociale pleinement développée peut assurer la sécurité du revenu, c’est une attaque contre Want. But Want is one only of five giants on the road of reconstruction and in some ways the easiest to attack. Mais nous voulons un seul de cinq géants sur la voie de la reconstruction et à certains égards la plus facile à attaquer. The others are Disease, Ignorance, Squalor and Idleness. Les autres sont des maladies, l’ignorance, la misère et l’oisiveté.

9. 9. The third principle is that social security must be achieved by co-operation between the State and the individual. Le troisième principe est que la sécurité sociale doit être atteint par la coopération entre l’État et l’individu. The State should offer security for service and contribution. L’État doit offrir une sécurité pour le service et la contribution. The State in organising security should not stifle incentive, opportunity, responsibility ; in establishing a national minimum, it should leave room and encouragement for voluntary action by each individual to provide more than that minimum for himself and his family. L’Etat dans l’organisation de la sécurité ne doit pas étouffer incitation, l’occasion, la responsabilité, en établissant un salaire minimum national, il convient de laisser de la place et l’encouragement à l’action volontaire par chaque individu à fournir plus de ce minimum pour lui et sa famille.

10. 10. The Plan for Social Security set out in this Report is built upon these principles. It uses experience but is not tied by experience. Le plan de la sécurité sociale énoncées dans le présent rapport est fondé sur ces principes. Il utilise l’expérience, mais n’est pas liée par l’expérience. It is put forward as a limited contribution to a wider social policy, though as something that could be achieved now without waiting for the whole of that policy. Il est présenté comme une contribution limitée à un plus large politique sociale, mais comme quelque chose qui pourrait être atteint maintenant sans attendre pour l’ensemble de cette politique. It is, first and foremost, a plan of insurance - of giving in return for contributions benefits up to subsistence level, as of right and without means test, so that individuals may build freely upon it. Il est, d’abord et avant tout, un régime d’assurance - de donner en retour d’avantages contributions jusqu’au niveau de subsistance, de plein droit et sans condition de ressources, afin que les individus peuvent construire librement sur elle.

THE WAY TO FREEDOM FROM WANT Marche vers la liberté de la misère

11. 11. The work of the Inter-departmental Committee began with a reviews of existing schemes of social insurance and allied services. Les travaux du comité interministériel a commencé par un examen des systèmes existants de l’assurance sociale et des services connexes. The Plan for Social Security, with which that work ends, starts from a diagnosis of want - of the circumstances in which, in the years just preceding the present war families and individuals in Britain might lack the means of healthy subsistence. Le plan de la sécurité sociale, avec laquelle ce travail se termine, commence à partir d’un diagnostic du besoin - des circonstances dans lesquelles, dans les années qui précèdent la guerre actuelle des familles et des particuliers en Grande-Bretagne pourraient manquer de moyens de subsistance en bonne santé. During those years impartial scientific authorities made social surveys of the conditions of life in a number of principal towns in Britain, including London, Liverpool, Sheffield, Plymouth, Southampton, York and Bristol. Durant ces années, les autorités scientifiques impartiaux fait les enquêtes sociales des conditions de vie dans un certain nombre de villes principales en Grande-Bretagne, notamment à Londres, Liverpool, Sheffield, Plymouth, Southampton, Bristol et York. They determined the proportions of the people in each town whose means were below the standard assumed to be necessary for subsistence, and they analysed the extent and causes of that deficiency. Ils ont déterminé les proportions de la population dans chaque ville dont les moyens ont été inférieurs à la norme supposée être nécessaires pour assurer leur subsistance, et ils ont analysé l’ampleur et les causes de cette carence. From each of these social surveys the same broad result emerges. De chacun de ces enquêtes sociales les grandes même résultat ressort. Of all the want shown by the surveys, from three-quarters to five-sixths, according to the precise standard chosen for want, was due to interruption or loss of earning power. De tous les voulez en attestent les sondages, de trois quarts à cinq sixièmes, conformément à la norme précise choisi pour le souhaitez, était due à l’interruption ou la perte de pouvoir d’achat. Practically the whole of the remaining one-quarter to one-sixth was due to failure to relate income during earning to the size of the family. Pratiquement la totalité du solde de un quart à un sixième a été due à l’échec de lier le revenu au cours de gain à la taille de la famille. These surveys were made before the introduction of supplementary pensions had reduced the amount of poverty amongst old persons. Ces enquêtes ont été réalisées avant l’introduction des pensions complémentaires a réduit le montant de la pauvreté parmi les personnes âgées. But this does not affect the main conclusion to be drawn from these surveys : abolition of want requires a double re-distribution of income, through social insurance and by family needs. Mais cela n’affecte pas la principale conclusion à tirer de ces enquêtes : l’abolition de la misère a besoin d’un nouveau double-distribution des revenus, grâce à l’assurance sociale et par les besoins de la famille.

12. 12. Abolition of want requires, first, improvement of State insurance that is to say provision against interruption and loss of earning power All the principal causes of interruption or loss of earnings are now the subject of schemes of social insurance. L’abolition de la misère exige, en premier lieu, l’amélioration de l’assurance État c’est-à-dire contre une interruption de la fourniture et la perte de pouvoir d’achat Toutes les principales causes d’interruption ou de la perte de revenus sont maintenant l’objet de régimes d’assurance sociale. If, in spite of these schemes, so many persons unemployed or sick or old or widowed are found to be without adequate income for subsistence according to the standards adopted in the social surveys, this means that the benefits amount to less than subsistence by those standards or do not last as long as the need, and that the assistance which supplements insurance is either insufficient in amount or available only on terms which make men unwilling to have recourse to it. Si, en dépit de ces régimes, de nombreuses personnes ainsi au chômage ou malades ou âgées ou veuves sont jugées sans revenus suffisants pour sa subsistance selon les normes adoptées dans les enquêtes sociales, cela signifie que le montant des prestations à moins de subsistance par les normes ou de ne pas durer aussi longtemps que la nécessité, et que l’assistance qui complète l’assurance est soit insuffisant, le montant ou disponibles uniquement sur des termes qui font les hommes ne veulent pas avoir recours à elle. None of the insurance benefits provided before the war were in fact designed with reference to the standards of the social surveys. Aucun des prestations d’assurance prévues avant la guerre ont en fait été conçu en référence aux normes des enquêtes sociales. Though unemployment benefit was not altogether out of relation to those standards, sickness and disablement benefit, old age pensions and widows’ pensions were far below them, while workmen’s compensation was below subsistence level for anyone who had family responsibilities or whose earnings in work were less than twice the amount needed for subsistence. Bien que l’allocation de chômage n’a pas été tout à fait hors de la relation à ces normes, la maladie et de prestations d’invalidité, les pensions de vieillesse et les pensions des veuves ont été bien en deçà eux, tandis que la réparation des accidents a été en dessous du niveau de subsistance pour tous ceux qui avaient des responsabilités familiales ou dont les revenus du travail étaient moins de deux fois le montant nécessaire pour assurer leur subsistance. To prevent interruption or destruction of earning power from leading to want, it is necessary to improve the present schemes of social insurance in three directions : by extension of scope to cover persons now excluded, by extension of purposes to cover risks now excluded, and by raising the rates of benefit. Pour éviter l’interruption ou la destruction de la capacité de gain provenant de vouloir, il est nécessaire d’améliorer les programmes actuels de l’assurance sociale dans trois directions : par extension du champ d’application aux personnes actuellement exclues, par extension, des fins de couvrir les risques sont actuellement exclus, et par relèvement du taux des prestations.

13. 13. Abolition of want requires, second, adjustment of incomes, in periods of earning as well as in interruption of earning, to family needs, that is to say, in one form or another it requires allowances for children. L’abolition de la misère exige, d’autre part, l’ajustement des revenus, dans les périodes de gagner ainsi que l’interruption de revenus, aux besoins des familles, c’est-à-dire, sous une forme ou une autre, il exige des allocations pour les enfants. Without such allowances as part of benefit -or added to it, to make provision for large families, no social insurance against interruption of earnings can be adequate. Sans ces allocations dans le cadre de la prestation ou ajoutés, de prendre des dispositions pour grande famille, pas d’assurance sociale contre l’arrêt de rémunération ne peut être adéquate. But, if children’s allowances are given only when earnings are interrupted and are not given during earning also, two evils are unavoidable. Mais, si les allocations aux enfants ne sont donnés qu’à lorsque la rémunération est interrompu et ne sont pas donnés au cours de gagner également, deux maux sont inévitables. First, a substantial measure of acute want will remain among the lower paid workers as the accompaniment of large families. Tout d’abord, une mesure importante de aiguë voulez restera parmi les plus bas salariés que l’accompagnement des familles nombreuses. Second, in all such cases, income will be greater during unemployment or other interruptions of work than during work. Deuxièmement, dans tous ces cas, le revenu sera plus grande en cas de chômage ou d’autres interruptions de travail que pendant le travail.

14. 14. By a double re-distribution of income through social insurance and children’s allowances, want, as defined in the social surveys, could have been abolished in Britain before the present war. Par une double distribution à nouveau des revenus grâce à l’assurance sociale et les allocations des enfants, voulons, tel que défini dans les enquêtes sociales, pourrait avoir été abolie en Grande-Bretagne avant la guerre actuelle. As is shown in para. Comme il est indiqué au paragraphe. 445, the income available to the British people was ample for such a purpose. 445, le revenu disponible pour la population britannique a été suffisant pour une telle fin. The Plan for Social Security set out in Part V of this Report takes abolition of want after this war as its aim. Le plan de la sécurité sociale énoncées dans la partie V du présent rapport prend l’abolition de la misère, après cette guerre comme son but. It includes as its main method compulsory social insurance, with national assistance and voluntary insurance as subsidiary, methods. Il comprend que sa méthode principale assurance sociale obligatoire, avec l’aide nationale et de l’assurance volontaire, comme filiale, des méthodes. It assumes allowances for dependent children, as part of its background. Il assume les allocations pour enfants à charge, dans le cadre de son arrière-plan. The plan assumes also establishment of comprehensive health and rehabilitation services and maintenance of employment, that is to say avoidance of mass unemployment, as necessary conditions of success in social insurance. Le plan prévoit également l’établissement de santé complets et des services de réadaptation et de maintien de l’emploi, c’est-à-dire éviter le chômage de masse, comme des conditions nécessaires de réussite à l’assurance sociale. These three measures - of children’s allowances, health and rehabilitation and maintenance of employment-are described as assumptions A,B and C of the plan ; they fall partly within and partly without the plan extending into other fields of social policy. Ces trois mesures - des allocations des enfants, la santé et de la réhabilitation et l’entretien de l’emploi sont décrits comme des hypothèses A, B et C du plan, ils relèvent pour partie de et en partie sans le plan de l’extension dans d’autres domaines de la politique sociale. They are discussed, not in the detailed exposition of the plan in Part V of the Report, but in Part VI, which is concerned with social security in relation to wider issues. Elles sont examinées, non pas dans l’exposé détaillé du plan de la partie V du rapport, mais dans la partie VI, qui est préoccupé par la sécurité sociale en ce qui concerne des questions plus larges.

15. 15. The plan is based on a diagnosis of want. Le plan est fondé sur un diagnostic du besoin. It starts from facts, from the condition of the people as revealed by social surveys between the two wars. Il commence à partir de faits, de la condition des personnes tel que révélé par les enquêtes sociales entre les deux guerres. It takes account of two other facts about the British community, arising out of past movements of the birth rate and the death rate, which should dominate planning for its future ; the main effects of these movements in determining the present and future of the British people are shown by Table XI in para. Il tient compte de deux autres faits sur la communauté britannique, découlant de mouvements passés du taux de natalité et le taux de mortalité, qui devrait dominer la planification de son avenir ; les principaux effets de ces mouvements pour déterminer le présent et l’avenir du peuple britannique sont représentés par le tableau XI à l’al. 234. 234. The first of the two facts is the age constitution of the population, making it certain that persons past the age that is now regarded as the end of working life will be a much larger proportion of the whole community than at any time in the past. Le premier de ces deux faits est la constitution d’âge de la population, ce qui rend certaines personnes qui ont dépassé l’âge qui est maintenant considérée comme la fin de la vie professionnelle sera une plus grande proportion beaucoup plus de toute la communauté qu’à aucun autre moment dans le passé. The second fact is the low reproduction rate of the British community today : unless this rate is raised very materially in the near future, a rapid and continuous decline of the population cannot be prevented. Le second fait est le faible taux de reproduction de la communauté britannique d’aujourd’hui : à moins que ce taux est porté très importante dans un proche avenir, une baisse continue et rapide de la population ne peut être empêchée. The first fact makes it necessary to seek ways of postponing the age of retirement from work rather than of hastening It. Le premier fait, il est nécessaire de rechercher les moyens de retarder l’âge de la retraite du travail plutôt que de hâter Il. The second fact makes it imperative to give first place in social expenditure to the care of childhood and to the safeguarding of maternity. Le second fait, il est impératif de donner la première place dans les dépenses sociales pour la prise en charge de l’enfance et à la protection de la maternité.

16. 16. The provision to be made for old age represents the largest and most growing element in any social insurance scheme. La disposition à faire de la vieillesse représente la plus grande croissance et plus important élément dans tout régime d’assurance sociale. The problem of age is discussed accordingly in Part III of the Report as one of three special problems ; the measures proposed for dealing with this problem are summarised in paras. Le problème de l’âge est discuté en conséquence à la partie III du rapport que l’un des trois problèmes particuliers ; les mesures proposées pour faire face à ce problème sont résumés dans les paragraphes. 254-257. 254-257. Briefly, the proposal is to introduce for all citizens adequate pensions without means test by stages over a transition period of twenty years, while providing immediate assistance pensions for persons requiring them. In adopting a transition period for pensions as of right, while meeting immediate needs subject to consideration of means, the Plan for Social Security in Britain follows the precedent of New Zealand. En bref, la proposition est d’introduire pour tous les citoyens des pensions adéquates sans condition de ressources par étapes sur une période de transition de vingt ans, tout en fournissant une assistance immédiate des pensions pour les personnes en ont besoin. En adoptant une période de transition pour les pensions de plein droit, tout en répondant aux besoins immédiats soumis à l’examen des moyens, le plan de la sécurité sociale en Grande-Bretagne suit le précédent de la Nouvelle-Zélande. The final rate of pensions in New Zealand is higher than that proposed in this Plan, but is reached only after a transition period of twenty-eight years as compared with twenty years suggested here ; after twenty years, the New Zealand rate is not very materially different from the basic rate proposed for Britain. Le taux final des pensions en Nouvelle-Zélande est plus élevé que celui proposé dans ce plan, mais n’est atteint qu’après une période de transition de vingt-huit ans, comparativement avec vingt ans suggérées ici, après vingt ans, le taux de Nouvelle-Zélande n’est pas très importante différent du taux de base proposés pour la Grande-Bretagne. The New Zealand pensions are not conditional upon retirement from work ; for Britain it is proposed that they should be retirement pensions and that persons who continue at work and postpone retirement should be able to increase their pensions above the basic rate. Les nouvelles pensions-Zélande ne sont pas subordonnée à la cessation du travail, car la Grande-Bretagne, il est proposé qu’ils soient des pensions de retraite et que les personnes qui continuent à travailler et de retarder la retraite devrait être en mesure d’augmenter leurs pensions au-dessus du taux de base. The New Zealand scheme is less favourable than the plan for Britain in starting at a lower level ; it is more favourable some other respects. Le régime de la Nouvelle-Zélande est moins favorable que le projet de Grande-Bretagne en commençant à un niveau inférieur ; elle est plus favorable à certains égards d’autres. Broadly the two schemes for two communities of the British race are plans on the same lines to solve the same problem of passage from pensions based on need to pensions paid as of right to all citizens in virtue of contribution. En gros, les deux régimes pour les deux communautés de la race britannique est prévu dans le même sens pour résoudre le même problème de passage des pensions en fonction des besoins pour les pensions versées de plein droit à tous les citoyens en vertu de la contribution.

SUMMARY OF PLAN FOR SOCIAL SECURITY Résumé du plan de la sécurité sociale

17. 17. The main feature of the Plan for Social Security is a scheme of social insurance against interruption and destruction of earning power and for special expenditure arising at birth, marriage or death. La caractéristique principale du plan de la sécurité sociale est un régime d’assurance sociale contre l’interruption et la destruction de pouvoir d’achat et pour les dépenses spéciales acquises à la naissance, de mariage ou de décès. The scheme embodies six fundamental principles : flat rate of subsistence benefit ; flat rate of contribution ; unification of administrative responsibility ; adequacy of benefit ; comprehensiveness ; and classification. Le régime incarne six principes fondamentaux : tarif forfaitaire de l’allocation de subsistance ; forfaitaire de contribution, l’unification de la responsabilité administrative, l’adéquation des prestations ; l’intégralité et la classification. These principles are explained in paras. Ces principes sont expliqués dans les paragraphes. 303-309. 303-309. Based on them and in combination with national assistance and voluntary insurance as subsidiary methods, the aim of the Plan for Social Security is to make want under any circumstances unnecessary. Basé sur eux et en combinaison avec l’aide nationale et de l’assurance volontaire que les méthodes filiale, l’objectif du plan de la sécurité sociale est de rendre veut en aucun cas inutile.

18. 18. A plan which is designed to cover so many varieties of human circumstance must be long and detailed. Un plan qui vise à couvrir de nombreuses variétés afin de circonstance de l’homme doit être long et détaillé. It must contain proposals of differing orders of certainty and importance. Il doit contenir des propositions de différents ordres de sécurité et de l’importance. In preparing the Report, the question arose naturally as to how far it was necessary at this stage to enter into details, and whether it might not be preferable to deal with principles only. Dans la préparation du rapport, la question se pose naturellement de savoir dans quelle mesure il a été nécessaire à ce stade d’entrer dans les détails, et s’il ne serait pas préférable de traiter avec les seuls principes. For two reasons it has appeared desirable, in place of giving an outline only, to set the proposals out in as much detail as the time allowed. Pour deux raisons, il est apparu souhaitable, au lieu de donner un aperçu que, pour définir les propositions dans autant de détails que le temps imparti. The first reason is that the principles underlying any practical reform can be judged only by seeing how they would work in practice. La première raison est que les principes qui sous-tendent toute réforme pratiques peuvent être jugés que par voir comment cela fonctionne dans la pratique. The second reason is that if a Plan for Social Security is to come into operation when the war ends or soon after, there is no time to lose in getting the plan prepared as fully as possible. La deuxième raison est que si un plan de la sécurité sociale est entré en application lors de la guerre se termine, ou peu après, il n’y a pas de temps à perdre à obtenir le plan préparé aussi complètement que possible. The many details set forth in Part V are neither exhaustive nor final ; they are put forward as a basis of discussion, but their formulation will, it is hoped, shorten subsequent discussion. Les nombreux détails énoncés dans la partie V ne sont ni exhaustives ni définitives, elles sont mises en avant comme base de discussion, mais leur formulation sera, on l’espère, de raccourcir la discussion ultérieure. Even among the major proposals of the Report there are differences of importance and of relevance to the scheme as a whole. Même parmi les principales propositions du rapport qu’il existe des différences d’importance et de pertinence pour le régime dans son ensemble. There are some proposals which, though important and desirable in themselves, could be omitted without changing anything else in the scheme. Il ya des propositions qui, si importante et souhaitable en soi, pourrait être supprimé sans rien changer d’autre dans le système. Three in particular in the list of major changes in para. Trois en particulier dans la liste des changements majeurs à l’al. 30 have this character and are placed in square brackets to indicate it. 30 ont ce caractère et sont placés entre crochets pour indiquer. This does not mean that everything not bracketed is essential and must be taken or left as a whole. Cela ne signifie pas que tout n’est pas entre crochets est essentiel et doit être prise ou à gauche dans son ensemble. The six principles named above and all that is implied in them are fundamental ; the rest of the scheme can be adjusted without changing its character : all rates of benefit and all details are by nature subject to amendment. Les six principes susmentionnés et de tout ce qui est implicite dans les fondamentaux sont, le reste du système peut être réglé sans changer son caractère : tous les taux des prestations et tous les détails sont par nature soumises à modification.

19. 19. The main provisions of the plan may be summarised as follows : Les principales dispositions du plan peuvent être résumés comme suit :

(i) The plan covers all citizens without upper income limit, but. (I) Le plan couvre tous les citoyens sans limite de revenu supérieur, mais. has regard a ce qui concerne

to their different ways of life ; it is a plan all-embracing in à leurs modes de vie différents, c’est un plan qui embrasse tout en scope of persons and of needs, but is classified in application. la portée des personnes et des besoins, mais est classé en application.

(ii) (Ii) In relation to social security the population falls into four main classes of En matière de sécurité sociale de la population est divisée en quatre grandes catégories de working age and two others below and above working age respectively, as follows : âge de travailler et de deux autres ci-dessous et ci-dessus en âge de travailler, respectivement, comme suit :

    1. Employees, that is, persons whose normal occupation is employment under contract of service. Les employés, qui est, les personnes dont la profession est normal d’emploi sous contrat de service.
    2. Others gainfully occupied, including employers, traders and independent workers of all kinds. Autres occuper un emploi rémunéré, y compris les employeurs, les commerçants et les travailleurs indépendants de toutes sortes.
    3. Housewives, that is married women of working age. Housewives, c’est les femmes mariées en âge de travailler.
    4. Others of working age not gainfully occupied. D’autres en âge de travailler n’est pas une profession lucrative.
    5. Below working age. Ci-dessous en âge de travailler.
    6. Retired above working age. Retraité ci-dessus en âge de travailler.

(iii) The sixth of these classes will receive retirement pensions and the fifth will be covered by children’s allowances, which will be paid from the National Exchequer in respect of all children when the responsible parent is in receipt of insurance benefit or pension, and in respect of all children except one in other cases. (Iii) Le sixième de ces classes recevront des pensions de retraite et le cinquième sera couvert par les allocations des enfants, qui seront payés par la Trésorerie nationale à l’égard de tous les enfants lorsque le parent responsable est bénéficiaire d’une prestation d’assurance ou de retraite, et en le respect de tous les enfants sauf un dans les autres cas. The four other classes will be insured for security appropriate to their circumstances. Les quatre autres classes seront assurés en matière de sécurité adaptées à leur situation. All classes will be covered for comprehensive medical treatment and rehabilitation and for funeral expenses. Toutes les catégories seront couverts pour les soins médicaux complets et de réadaptation et pour frais funéraires.

(iv) Every person in Class I, II or IV will pay a single security contribution by a stamp on a single insurance document each week or combination of weeks. (Iv) Toute personne de la classe I, II ou IV paiera une contribution unique de sécurité par un tampon sur un document unique de l’assurance de chaque semaine ou une combinaison de semaines. In Class I the employer also will contribute, affixing the insurance stamp and deducting the employee’s share from wages or salary. Dans la classe I de l’employeur contribuera également, l’apposition du cachet d’assurance et en déduisant la part du salarié sur le salaire ou traitement. The contribution will differ from one class to another, according to the benefits provided, and will be higher for men than for women, so as to secure benefits for Class Ill. La contribution sera différent d’une classe à l’autre, selon les prestations fournies, et sera plus élevé pour les hommes que pour les femmes, afin d’assurer des avantages pour la classe Ill

(v) Subject to simple contribution conditions, every person in Class I will receive benefit for unemployment and disability, pension on retirement, medical treatment and funeral expenses. (V) Sous réserve des conditions de cotisation simple, chaque personne dans la classe je vais recevoir des prestations de chômage et d’invalidité, pension de retraite, des soins médicaux et les frais funéraires. Persons in Class II will receive all these except unemployment benefit and disability benefit during the first 13 weeks of disability. Les personnes de la classe II recevra toutes ces prestations de chômage et à l’exception des prestations d’invalidité au cours des 13 premières semaines d’invalidité. Persons in Class IV will receive all these except unemployment and disability benefit. Les personnes de la classe IV recevra tous ces sauf le chômage et de prestations d’invalidité. As a substitute for unemployment benefit, training benefit will be available to persons in all classes other than Class 1, to assist them to find new livelihoods if their present ones fail. En remplacement des prestations de chômage, prestations de formation seront disponibles pour les personnes dans toutes les classes autres que la classe 1, pour les aider à trouver des nouveaux moyens de subsistance si leurs êtres présents échouer. Maternity grant, provision for widowhood and separation and qualification for retirement pensions will be secured to all persons in Class III by virtue of their husbands’ contributions ; in addition to maternity grant, housewives who take paid work will receive maternity benefit for thirteen weeks to enable them to give up working before and after childbirth. La prime de maternité, les prestations aux veuves et à la séparation et de qualification pour les pensions de retraite sera assurée à toutes les personnes de la classe III en vertu de maris leurs contributions, en plus de l’allocation de maternité, femmes au foyer qui prennent un emploi rémunéré recevront des prestations de maternité pendant treize semaines pour permettre aux leur d’arrêter de travailler avant et après l’accouchement.

(vi) Unemployment benefit, disability benefit, basic retirement pension after a transition period, and training benefit will be at the same rate, irrespective of previous earnings. (Vi) les prestations de chômage, de prestations d’invalidité, pension de retraite de base après une période de transition, et de bénéficier de formation seront à la même vitesse, indépendamment des gains antérieurs. This rate will provide by itself the income necessary for subsistence in all normal cases. Ce taux sera de fournir par elle-même les revenus nécessaires pour assurer leur subsistance dans tous les cas normaux. There will be a joint rate for a man and wife who is not gainfully occupied. Where there is no wife or she is gainfully occupied, there will be a lower single rate ; where there is no wife but a dependant above the age for children’s allowance, there will be a dependant allowance. Il y aura un taux commun pour un homme et une femme qui n’est pas une profession lucrative. Lorsqu’il n’ya pas de femme ou qu’elle exerce une activité rémunérée, il y aura un taux unique, où il n’ya pas de femme, mais une personne à charge ayant dépassé l’âge de l’allocation pour les enfants , il y aura une indemnité à charge. Maternity benefit for housewives who work also for gain will be at a higher rate than the single rate in unemployment or disability, while their unemployment and disability benefit will be at a lower rate ; there are special rates also for widowhood as described below. Prestations de maternité pour les femmes au foyer qui travaillent également pour le gain sera à un taux plus élevé que le taux unique de chômage ou d’invalidité, tandis que leur taux de chômage et de prestations d’invalidité seront à un taux inférieur, il ya aussi des tarifs spéciaux pour le veuvage comme décrit ci-dessous. With these exceptions all rates of benefit will be the same for men and for women. A ces exceptions près tous les tarifs des prestations seront les mêmes pour les hommes et les femmes. Disability due to industrial accident or disease will be treated like all other disability for the first thirteen weeks ; if disability continues thereafter, disability benefit at a flat rate will be replaced by an industrial pension related to the earnings of the individual subject to a minimum and a maximum. maladie invalidité due à un accident industriel ou seront traitées comme toutes les autres personnes handicapées pour les treize premières semaines, si l’invalidité se poursuit par la suite, des prestations d’invalidité à un taux forfaitaire sera remplacée par une pension industrielles liées à la rémunération de la personne soumise à un minimum et un maximum.

(vii) Unemployment benefit will continue at the same rate without means test so long as unemployment lasts, but will normally be subject to a condition of attendance at a work or training centre after a certain period. (Vii) L’allocation de chômage va continuer au même rythme sans condition de ressources tant que le chômage dure, mais sera normalement soumis à une condition de présence au travail ou un centre de formation après une certaine période. Disability benefit will continue at the same rate without means test, so long as disability lasts or till it is replaced by industrial pension, subject to acceptance of prestations d’invalidité se poursuivra au même rythme sans condition de ressources, tant que dure l’invalidité ou jusqu’à ce qu’elle soit remplacée par la pension d’industriels, sous réserve d’acceptation suitable medical treatment or vocational training. un traitement médical approprié ou une formation professionnelle.

    1. Pensions (other than industrial) will be paid only on retirement from work. Pensions (autres que les industriels) ne seront versées que sur la retraite du travail. They may be claimed at any time after the minimum age of retirement, that is 65 for men and 60 for women. Ils peuvent être réclamés à tout moment après l’âge minimum de départ à la retraite, c’est 65 ans pour les hommes et 60 pour les femmes. The rate of pension will be increased above the basic rate if retirement is postponed. Le taux de la pension sera augmentée au-dessus du taux de base si la retraite est reporté. Contributory pensions as of right will be raised to the full basic rate gradually during a transition period of twenty years, in which adequate pensions according to needs will be paid to all persons requiring them. pensions contributives de droit sera porté à la base à taux plein progressivement au cours d’une période de transition de vingt ans, dans lequel des pensions adéquates en fonction des besoins sera versée à toutes les personnes en ont besoin. The position of existing pensioners will be safeguarded. La position des retraités actuels seront préservés.
    2. While permanent pensions will no longer be granted to widows of working age without dependent children, there will be for all widows a temporary benefit at a higher rate than unemployment or disability benefit, followed by training benefit where necessary. Si les pensions permanente ne sera plus accordée aux veuves en âge de travailler, sans enfants à charge, il y aura pour toutes les veuves d’une prestation temporaire à un taux plus élevé que le chômage ou de prestations d’invalidité, prestations de formation suivie le cas échéant. For widows with the care of dependent children there will be guardian benefit, in addition. Pour les veuves avec le soin des enfants à charge, il y aura des avantages tuteur, en plus. to the children’s allowances, adequate for subsistence without other means. pour les allocations pour enfants l’, suffisants pour sa subsistance, sans d’autres moyens. The position of existing widows on pension will be safeguarded. La situation des veuves en vigueur sur les pensions seront sauvegardés.

(x) For the limited number of cases of need not covered by social insurance, national assistance subject to a uniform means test will be available. (X) Pour le nombre limité de cas de besoin ne sont pas couverts par l’assurance sociale, sous réserve d’aide nationaux d’une application uniforme des moyens de test sera disponible.

(xi) Medical treatment covering all requirements will be provided for all citizens by a national health service organised under the health departments and post-medical rehabilitation treatment will be provided for all persons capable of profiting by it. (Xi) le traitement médical couvrant tous les besoins seront fournis pour tous les citoyens par un service national de santé assurée par les ministères de la santé et de réadaptation médicale de traitement post sera fourni pour toutes les personnes capables d’en profiter.

(xii) A Ministry of Social Security will be established, responsible for social insurance, national assistance and encouragement and supervision of voluntary insurance and will take over, so far as necessary for these purposes, the present work of other Government Departments and of 1-ocal Authorities in these fields. (Xii), le ministère de la Sécurité sociale sera mis en place, responsable de l’assurance sociale, l’aide nationale et de l’encouragement et la supervision de l’assurance volontaire et prendre en charge, autant que de besoin à ces fins, le présent travail des autres ministères du gouvernement et de 1 - Ocal autorités dans ces domaines.

THE NATURE OF SOCIAL INSURANCE LA NATURE DE L’ASSURANCE SOCIALE

20. 20. Under the scheme of social insurance, which forms the main feature of this plan, every citizen of working age will contribute in his appropriate class according to the security that he needs, or as a married woman will have contributions made by the husband. Dans le cadre du régime d’assurance sociale, qui constitue la caractéristique principale de ce plan, chaque citoyen en âge de travailler va contribuer à sa classe appropriée en fonction de la sécurité dont il a besoin, ou comme une femme mariée aura contributions faites par le mari. Each will be covered for all his needs by a single weekly contribution on one insurance document. Chaque seront couverts pour tous ses besoins par un hebdomadaire cotisation unique sur un document d’assurance. All the principal cash payments-for unemployment, disability and retirement win continue so long as the need lasts, without means test, and will be paid from a Social Insurance Fund built up by contributions from the insured persons, from their employers, if any, and from the State. Tous les principaux paiements en espèces, de chômage, d’invalidité et de retraite gagner continuer aussi longtemps que dure la nécessité, sans condition de ressources, et sera payé à partir d’un fonds d’assurance sociale constitué par les cotisations des assurés, de leurs employeurs, le cas échéant, et de l’État. This is in accord with two views as Ceci est en accord avec les deux points de vue to the lines on which the problem of income maintenance should be approached. pour les lignes sur lesquelles le problème du maintien du revenu devrait être abordée.

21. 21. The first view is that benefit in return for contributions, rather than free La première vue est que des avantages en échange de contributions, plutôt que libre allowances from the State, is what the people of Britain desire. les allocations de l’État, est ce que les gens du désir Grande-Bretagne. This desire Ce désir is shown both by the established popularity of compulsory insurance, and by the phenomenal growth of voluntary insurance against sickness, against death and for endowment, and most recently for hospital treatment It is shown in another way by the strength of popular objection to any kind of means test. est montré à la fois par la popularité constante de l’assurance obligatoire, et par la croissance phénoménale de l’assurance volontaire contre la maladie, contre la mort et de dotation, et plus récemment pour un traitement hospitalier, il est indiqué d’une autre manière par la force d’opposition populaire à tout type de des moyens de test. This objection springs not so much from a desire to get everything for nothing, as from resentment at a provision which appears to penalise what people have come to regard as the duty and pleasure of thrift, of putting pennies away for a rainy day. Cette objection ressorts non pas tant par un désir d’obtenir tout pour rien, que du ressentiment à une disposition qui semble sanctionner ce que les gens sont venus à considérer que le devoir et le plaisir de l’épargne, de mettre quelques sous loin pour un jour de pluie. Management of one’s income is an essential element of a citizen’s freedom. Payment of a substantial part of the cost of benefit as a contribution irrespective of the means of the contributor is the firm basis of a claim to benefit irrespective of means. Gestion de ses revenus est un élément essentiel de la liberté d’un citoyen. Le paiement d’une partie substantielle du coût de la prestation en tant que contribution quel que soit le moyen de le cotisant est la base solide d’une demande de prestations sans conditions de ressources.

22. 22. The second view is that whatever money is required for provision of insurance benefits, so long as they are needed, should come from a Fund to which the recipients have contributed and to which they may be required to make larger contributions if the Fund proves inadequate. Le second point de vue est que tout l’argent est nécessaire pour la fourniture de prestations d’assurance, tant qu’ils sont nécessaires, doivent provenir d’un fonds dont les bénéficiaires ont contribué et auxquelles ils peuvent être tenus de faire des contributions plus importantes si le Fonds se révèle insuffisante. The plan adopted since 1930 in regard to prolonged unemployment and sometimes suggested for prolonged disability, that the State should take this burden off insurance, in order to keep the contribution down, is wrong in principle. Le plan adopté depuis 1930 en matière de chômage prolongé et parfois suggéré d’invalidité prolongée, que l’Etat doit prendre cette charge hors assurance, afin de maintenir la contribution vers le bas, est mauvais en principe. The insured persons should not feel that income for idleness, however caused, can come from a bottomless purse. Les assurés ne devraient pas l’impression que le revenu de l’oisiveté, soit la cause, peuvent provenir d’une bourse sans fond. The Government should not feel that by paying doles it can avoid the major responsibility of seeing that unemployment and disease are reduced to the minimum. The place for direct expenditure and organisation by the State is in maintaining employment of the labour and other productive resources of the country, and in preventing and combating disease, not in patching an incomplete scheme of insurance. Le gouvernement ne devrait pas se sentir qu’en payant aumônes qu’il peut éviter la responsabilité majeure de voir que le chômage et la maladie sont réduites au minimum. Le lieu pour les dépenses directes et de l’organisation par l’État est dans le maintien de l’emploi de la main-d’œuvre et autres ressources productives de la pays, et dans la prévention et la lutte contre la maladie, pas de colmatage d’un régime d’assurance incomplète.

23. 23. The State cannot be excluded altogether from giving direct assistance to individuals in need, after examination of their means. L’État ne peut pas être complètement exclu de donner une aide directe aux personnes dans le besoin, après examen de leurs moyens. However comprehensive an insurance scheme, some, through physical infirmity, can never contribute at all and some will fall through the meshes of any insurance. Cependant un régime d’assurance globale, certains, par suite d’infirmité physique, ne peut jamais contribuer à tous et certains vont tomber dans les mailles de toute assurance. The making of insurance benefit without means test unlimited in duration involves of itself that conditions must be imposed at some stage or another as to how men in receipt of benefit shall use their time, so as to fit themselves or to keep themselves fit for service ; imposition of any condition means that the condition may not be fulfilled and that a case of assistance may arise. La réalisation de prestations d’assurance sans condition de ressources illimitées dans le temps implique de lui-même que des conditions doivent être imposées à un moment ou un autre sur la façon dont les hommes dans la réception des prestations est l’utilisation de leur temps, de sorte que pour s’insérer ou à se maintenir en état de servir ; imposition de toute condition signifie que l’état ne peuvent pas être remplies et que le cas de l’aide peuvent se poser. Moreover for one of the main purposes of social insurance-provision for old age or retirement-the contributory principle implies contribution for a substantial number of years ; in the introduction of adequate contributory pensions there must be a period of transition during which those who have not qualified for pension by contribution but are in need have their needs met by assistance pensions. En outre, pour l’un des principaux objectifs de la prestation de l’assurance sociale pour la vieillesse ou la retraite, le principe contributif implique la contribution d’un nombre important d’années, dans l’introduction de adéquats pensions contributives il doit y avoir une période de transition au cours de laquelle ceux qui n’ont pas qualifiés pour la pension par un apport, mais sont dans le besoin ont leurs besoins comblés par les pensions d’assistance. National assistance is an essential subsidiary method in the whole Plan for Social Security , and the work of the Assistance Board shows that assistance subject to means test can be administered with sympathetic justice and discretion taking full account of individual circumstances. l’aide nationale est une méthode filiale essentiel dans tout le plan de la sécurité sociale, et les travaux de la Commission d’aide montre que l’objet de l’aide aux moyens de test peut être administré avec justice sympathique et discrétion, en tenant pleinement compte des circonstances individuelles. But the scope of assistance will be narrowed from the beginning and will diminish throughout the transition period for pensions. Mais la portée de l’aide sera réduit dès le début et diminuera pendant toute la période de transition pour les pensions. The scheme of social insurance is designed of itself when in full operation to guarantee the income needed for subsistence in all normal cases. Le régime d’assurance sociale est conçu de lui-même quand en pleine opération de garantir le revenu nécessaire pour assurer leur subsistance dans tous les cas normaux.

24. 24. The scheme is described as a scheme of insurance, because it preserves the contributory principle. Le régime est décrit comme un régime d’assurance, car elle préserve le principe contributif. It is described as social insurance to mark important distinctions from voluntary insurance. Il est décrit comme l’assurance sociale pour marquer des distinctions importantes de l’assurance volontaire. In the first place, while adjustment of premiums to risks is of the essence of voluntary insurance, since without this individuals would not of their own will insure, this adjustment is not essential in insurance which is made compulsory by the power of the State. En premier lieu, si l’ajustement des primes de risques est de l’essence de l’assurance volontaire, car sans cette individus ne seraient pas de leur propre volonté d’assurer, cet ajustement n’est pas essentiel dans l’assurance qui est rendu obligatoire par la puissance de l’État. In the second place, in providing for actuarial risks such as those of death, old age or sickness, it is necessary in voluntary insurance to fund contributions paid in early life in order to provide for the increasing risks of later life and to accumulate reserves against individual liabilities. En second lieu, en prévoyant des risques actuariels, comme celles de la mort, la vieillesse ou de maladie, il est nécessaire à une assurance volontaire pour financer les cotisations versées au début de la vie afin de prévoir l’augmentation des risques de la vie plus tard et à accumuler des réserves contre responsabilités individuelles. The State with its power of compelling successive generations of citizens to become insured and its power of taxation is not under the necessity of accumulating reserves for actuarial risks and has not, in fact, adopted this method in the past. L’Etat de son pouvoir de contraindre les générations successives de citoyens à devenir des assurés et son pouvoir de taxation n’est pas dans la nécessité d’accumuler des réserves pour risques actuariels et n’a pas, en effet, adopté cette méthode dans le passé. The second of these two distinctions is one of financial practice only ; the first raises important questions of policy and equity. Le second de ces deux distinctions est l’une des pratiques financières seulement, la première soulève d’importantes questions de politique et d’équité. Though the State, in conducting compulsory insurance, is not under the necessity of varying the premium according to the risk, it may decide as a matter of policy to do so. Bien que l’État, dans la conduite de l’assurance obligatoire, n’est pas dans la nécessité de varier les primes en fonction du risque, il peut décider en tant que question de politique de le faire.

25. 25. When State insurance began in Britain, it was felt that compulsory insurance should be like voluntary insurance in adjusting premiums to risks. Lorsque l’assurance État a commencé en Grande-Bretagne, on a estimé que l’assurance obligatoire devrait être comme l’assurance volontaire dans l’ajustement des primes de risques. This was secured in health insurance by the system of Approved Societies. Cela a été obtenu dans l’assurance santé par le système des sociétés agréées. It was intended to be secured in unemployment insurance by variation of contribution rates between industries as soon as accurate valuation became possible, by encouragement of special schemes of insurance by industry, and by return of contributions to individuals who made no claims. Il était destiné à être fixé dans l’assurance-chômage par la variation des taux de cotisation entre les industries, dès que l’évaluation précise est devenu possible, par un encouragement des régimes spéciaux d’assurance par l’industrie, et par le remboursement des cotisations à des personnes qui ne formulent aucune demande. In the still earlier institution of workmen’s compensation, adjustment of premiums to industrial risks was a necessary consequence of the form in which provision for industrial accidents was made, by placing liability on employers individually and leaving them to insure voluntarily against their liability. Dans la première institution encore de l’indemnisation des travailleurs, l’ajustement des primes de risques industriels est une conséquence nécessaire de la forme sous laquelle la fourniture des accidents du travail a été fait, en plaçant la responsabilité sur les employeurs, individuellement et en les laissant dans l’assurance volontaire contre leur responsabilité. In the thirty years since 1912, there has been an unmistakable movement of public opinion away from these original ideas, that is to say, away from the principle of adjusting premiums to risks in compulsory insurance and in favour of pooling risks. En trente ans, depuis 1912, il a été un mouvement non équivoque de l’opinion publique loin de ces idées originales, c’est-à-dire l’abandon du principe de l’ajustement des primes de risques dans l’assurance obligatoire et en faveur de la mise en commun des risques. This change has been most marked and most complete in regard to unemployment, where, in the general scheme, insurance by industry, in place of covering a large part of the field, has been reduced to historical exceptions ; today the common argument is that the volume of unemployment in an industry is not to any effective extent within its control ; that all industries depend upon one another, and that those which are fortunate in being regular should share the cost of unemployment in those which are less regular. The same tendency of opinion in favour of pooling of social risks has shown itself in the views expressed by the great majority of witnesses to the present Committee in regard to health insurance. Ce changement a été la plus marquée et la plus complète en matière de chômage, où, dans le régime général, l’assurance par l’industrie, au lieu de couvrir une grande partie du champ, a été réduit d’exceptions historiques, aujourd’hui l’argument commun est que le volume de chômage dans un secteur n’est pas à toute mesure efficace au sein de son contrôle, que toutes les industries dépendent les uns des autres, et que ceux qui sont heureux d’être réguliers devraient se partager le coût du chômage dans ceux qui sont moins régulières. La même tendance de avis favorable à la mutualisation des risques sociaux s’est montré dans les vues exprimées par la grande majorité des témoins de la présente commission en ce qui concerne l’assurance maladie. In regard to workmen’s compensation, the same argument has been put by the Mineworkers’ Federation to the Royal Commission on Workmen s Compensation ; as other industries cannot exist without coalmining, they have proposed that employers in all industries should bear equally the cost of industrial accidents and disease, in coalmining as elsewhere. En ce qui concerne l’indemnisation des travailleurs, le même argument a été mis par les mineurs Fédération à la Commission royale sur les ouvriers de la rémunération, comme les autres industries ne peut exister sans l’industrie charbonnière, ils ont proposé que les employeurs dans tous les secteurs devraient porter également le coût des accidents du travail et la maladie, en charbon comme ailleurs.

26. 26. There is here an issue of principle and practice on which strong arguments can be advanced on each side by reasonable men. Il ya là une question de principe et la pratique à laquelle de solides arguments peuvent être avancés de chaque côté par des hommes raisonnables. But the general tendency of public opinion seems clear. Mais la tendance générale de l’opinion publique semble clair. After trial of a different principle, it has been found to accord best with the sentiments of the British people that in insurance organised by the community by use of compulsory power, each individual should stand in on the same terms ; none should claim to pay less because he is healthier or has more regular employment. Après le procès d’un principe différent, il a été constaté au meilleur accord avec les sentiments du peuple britannique que dans l’assurance organisée par la communauté par l’utilisation de la puissance obligatoire, chaque individu devrait être maintenue dans les mêmes conditions, aucune réclamation devrait payer moins parce qu’il est plus sain ou plus a un emploi régulier. In accord with that view, the proposals of the Report mark another step forward to the development of State insurance as a new type of human institution, differing both from the former methods of preventing or alleviating distress and from voluntary insurance. En accord avec ce point de vue, les propositions de la marque Rapport d’un autre pas en avant pour le développement de l’assurance d’État comme un nouveau type d’institution humaine, qui diffère à la fois des méthodes anciennes de prévenir ou de soulager la détresse et de l’assurance volontaire. The term "social insurance" to describe this institution implies both that it is compulsory and that men stand together with their fellows. Le terme « assurance sociale » pour décrire cette institution implique à la fois qu’il est obligatoire et que les hommes sont solidaires avec leurs congénères. The term implies a pooling of risks except so far as separation of risks serves a social purpose. Le terme implique une mutualisation des risques, sauf pour autant que la séparation des risques répond à une finalité sociale. There may be reasons of social policy for adjusting premiums to risks, in order to give a stimulus for avoidance of danger, as in the case of industrial accident and disease. Il peut y avoir des raisons de politique sociale pour régler les primes de risques, afin de donner une impulsion pour éviter tout danger, comme dans le cas d’accident du travail et les maladies. There is no longer an admitted claim of the individual citizen to share in national insurance and yet to stand outside it, keeping the advantage of his individual lower risk whether of unemployment or of disease or accident. Il n’est plus une créance admise du citoyen à part dans l’assurance nationale et encore à subir l’extérieur, en gardant l’avantage de personne risque plus faible de son si de chômage ou de maladie ou d’accident.

PROVISIONAL RATES OF BENEFIT AND CONTRIBUTION PRIX PROVISOIRE DE PRESTATIONS ET CONTRIBUTION

27. 27. Social insurance should aim at guaranteeing the minimum income needed for subsistence. L’assurance sociale devraient viser à garantir le revenu minimum nécessaire pour assurer leur subsistance. What the actual rates of benefit and contribution should be in terms of money cannot be settled now, and that for two reasons. Ce que le taux effectif de la prestation et la contribution devrait être en termes d’argent ne peut être réglé maintenant, et cela pour deux raisons. First, it is impossible today to forecast with assurance the level of prices after the war. Tout d’abord, il est aujourd’hui impossible de prévoir avec assurance le niveau des prix après la guerre. Second, determination of what is required for reasonable human subsistence is to some extent a matter of judgment ; estimates on this point change with time, and generally, in a progressive community, change upwards. Deuxièmement, la détermination de ce qui est nécessaire pour la subsistance de l’homme raisonnable est dans une certaine mesure une question de jugement ; sur ce point avec le changement de temps, et généralement, dans une progressive, de la communauté vers le haut le changement des estimations. The procedure adopted to deal with this problem has been : first, from consideration of subsistence needs, as given by impartial expert authorities, to determine the weekly incomes which would have been sufficient for subsistence in normal cases at prices ruling in 1938 ; second, to derive from these the rates appropriate to a cost of living about 25% above that of 1938. La procédure adoptée pour faire face à ce problème a été : d’abord, de l’examen des besoins de subsistance, comme indiqué par les autorités expert impartial, afin de déterminer les revenus hebdomadaires qui aurait été suffisante pour assurer leur subsistance dans les cas normaux aux prix en vigueur en 1938, d’autre part, à découlent de ces taux, la cas échéant à un coût de la vie d’environ 25% supérieur à celui de 1938. These rates of benefit, pension and grant are set out in para. Ces taux des prestations, de retraite et de subvention sont énoncées à l’al. 401 as provisional post-war rates ; by reference to them it is possible to set forth simply what appears to be the most appropriate relation between different benefits and what would be the cost of each benefit and of all benefits together ; it is possible to show benefits in relation to contributions and taxation. 401 comme provisoire-guerre taux poste ; par rapport à eux, il est possible d’énoncer simplement ce qui semble être le rapport le plus approprié entre les différentes prestations et quel serait le coût de chaque prestation et de tous les avantages ensemble, il est possible de montrer avantages par rapport aux cotisations et la fiscalité. But the provisional rates themselves are not essential. Mais le taux provisoire eux-mêmes ne sont pas essentiels. If the value of money when the scheme comes into operation differs materially from the assumptions on which the provisional rates are based, the rates could be changed without affecting the scheme in any important particular. Si la valeur de l’argent lorsque le régime de l’entrée en opération diffère sensiblement des hypothèses sur lesquelles les taux provisoires sont fondés, les tarifs peuvent être changés sans affecter le régime de toute importance particulière. If social policy should demand benefits on a higher scale than subsistence, the whole level of benefit and contribution rates could be raised without affecting the structure of the scheme. Si la politique sociale doit exiger des prestations sur une plus grande échelle que de subsistance, le niveau de l’ensemble des prestations et les taux de cotisation pourrait être soulevée sans affecter la structure du régime. If social policy or financial stringency should dictate benefits on a lower scale, benefits and contributions could be lowered, though not perhaps so readily or without some adjustments within the scheme. Si la politique sociale ou la rigueur financière devrait dicter des avantages à une moindre échelle, les prestations et les contributions peuvent être abaissés, mais peut-être pas si facilement ou sans quelques ajustements au sein du régime.

28. 28. The most important of the provisional rates is the rate of 40/- a week for a man and wife in unemployment and disability and after the transition in addition to allowances for children at an average of 8/- per head per week. La plus importante des taux provisoire est le taux de 40 / - une semaine pour un homme et la femme en matière de chômage et d’invalidité et après la transition en plus des allocations pour les enfants à une moyenne de 8 / - par tête et par semaine. These amounts represent a large addition to existing benefits. Ces montants représentent une plus grande aux prestations existantes. They will mean that in unemployment and disability a man and wife if she is not working, with two children, will receive 56/- a week without means test so long as unemployment or disability lasts, as compared with the 33/- in unemployment and the 15/- or 7/6 in sickness, with additional benefit in some Approved Societies, which they were getting before the war. Ils signifient que, dans le chômage et l’invalidité d’un homme et la femme si elle ne fonctionne pas, avec deux enfants, recevront 56 / - Une semaine sans condition de ressources tant que le chômage ou l’invalidité dure, par rapport au 33 / - du chômage et le 15 / - ou 7 / 6 dans la maladie, avec des avantages supplémentaires dans certaines sociétés approuvées, dont ils recevaient avant la guerre. For married women gainfully occupied, there will be a maternity benefit at the rate of 36/- a week for 13 weeks, in addition to the maternity grant of £4 available for all married women.. Pour les femmes mariées ayant une occupation rémunérée, il y aura des prestations de maternité au taux de 36 / - par semaine pendant 13 semaines, en plus de l’allocation de maternité de £ 4 disponible pour toutes les femmes mariées .. Other rates, as for widowhood and for industrial disability, show similar increases, as set out in detail in paragraph. Les autres taux, comme pour le veuvage et d’invalidité industriels, montrent des augmentations similaires, comme indiqué en détail dans le paragraphe. 284, in dealing with the Social Security Budget. There will be new benefits for funerals, marriage and other needs, as well as comprehensive medical treatment, both domiciliary and institutional, for all citizens and their dependants which, subject to further enquiry suggested in para. 437, will be without a charge on treatment at any point. At these provisional rates, the total Security Budget, including children’s allowances and free health and rehabilitation services, is estimated to amount to £697,000,000 in 1945 as the first year of the plan, and £858,000,000 twenty years after, in 1965. The extent to which these sums represent new expenditure which is not now being incurred and the division of the total cost between insured persons, their employers and the Exchequer are discussed in Part IV of the Report and provisional rates of contribution are suggested in para. 403. 403. The most important of these is the contribution of 4/3 a week by an adult man in employment and 3/3 a week from his employer. At this rate, with corresponding rates for other classes, the contribution of insured employees in class I for cash benefits, when the plan, including contributory pensions, is in full operation, is estimated to amount to about 25 per cent. of the cost of their cash benefits exclusive of allowances for children ; the balance will be provided by the employers’ contributions and by taxation based on capacity to pay. At the outset, the contributions of insured persons will represent a larger proportion of the total cost ; the net addition to the burden on the National Exchequer in the first year, as compared with expenditure under the existing arrangements, will be about £86,000,000.

29. 29. The attempt to fix rates of insurance benefit and pension on a scientific basis with regard to subsistence needs has brought to notice a serious difficulty in doing so in the conditions of modern Britain. This is the problem of rent discussed in paras. 197-216. In this as in other respects, the framing of a satisfactory scheme of social security depends on the solution of other problems of economic and social organisation. But subject to unavoidable difficulties in giving a numerical value to the conception of a subsistence minimum, the scheme of social insurance outlined in this Report provides insurance benefit adequate to all normal needs, in duration and in amount. It is at the same time a scheme from which the anomalies and overlapping, the multiplicity of agencies and the needless administrative cost which mark the British Social Services today, have been removed and have been replaced by co-ordination, simplicity and economy.

UNIFIED SOCIAL SECURITY AND THE CHANGES INVOLVED

30. 30. The advantages of unified social security are great and unquestionable. They can be obtained only at the cost of changes in the present administrative machinery whose necessity needs to be proved and can be proved case by case. The principal changes from present practice that are involved in the plan are set out below. The reasons for each of these changes are given in Part II in one or two cases they are set out there only briefly, in anticipation of fuller discussion.

1 . 1. Unification of social insurance in respect of contributions, that is to say, enabling each insured person to- obtain all benefits by a single weekly contribution on a single document (paras. 41-43).

2. Unification of social insurance and assistance in respect of administration in a Ministry of Social Security with local Security Offices within reach of all insured persons (paras. 44-47).

3. Supersession of the present system of Approved Societies giving unequal benefits for equal compulsory contributions [combined with retention of Friendly Societies and Trade Unions giving sickness benefit as responsible agents for the administration of State benefit as well as voluntary benefit for their members] (paras. 48-76).

4. Supersession of the present scheme of workmen’s compensation and inclusion of provision for industrial accident or disease within the unified social insurance scheme, subject to (a) a special method of meeting the cost of this provision, and (b) special pensions for prolonged disability and grants to dependants in cases of death due to such causes (paras. 77-105).

5. Separation of medical treatment from the administration of cash benefits and the setting up of a comprehensive medical service for every citizen, covering all treatment and ever y form of disability under the supervision of the Health Departments (para. 106).

6. Recognition of housewives as a distinct insurance class of occupied persons with benefits adjusted to their special needs, including (a) in all cases [marriage grant], maternity grant, widowhood and separation provisions and retirement pensions ; (b) if not gainfully occupied, benefit during husband’s unemployment or disability ; (c) if gainfully occupied, special maternity benefit in addition to grant, and lower unemployment and disability benefits, accompanied by abolition of the Anomalies Regulations for Married Women (paras. 107-117).

7. Extension of insurance against prolonged disability to all persons gainfully occupied and of insurance for retirement pensions to all persons of working age, whether gainfully occupied or not (paras. 118-121).

8. Provision of training benefit to facilitate change to new occupations of all persons who lose their former livelihood, whether paid or unpaid (para. 122).

9. Assimilation of benefit and pension rates for unemployment, disability. other than prolonged disability due to industrial accident or disease, and retirement (para. 123).

10. Assimilation of benefit conditions for unemployment and disability including disability due to industrial accident or disease, in respect of waiting time (paras. 124-126).

11. Assimilation of contribution conditions for unemployment and disability benefit, except where disability is due to industrial accident or disease, and revision of contribution conditions for pension (paras. 127-128).

12. Making of unemployment benefit at full rate indefinite in duration, subject to requirement of attendance at a work or training centre after a limited period of unemployment (paras. 129-132).

13. Making of disability benefit at full rate indefinite in duration, subject to imposition of special behaviour conditions (paras. 129-132).

14. Making of pensions, other than industrial, conditional on retirement from work and rising in value with each year of continued contribution after the minimum age of retirement, that is to say, after 65 for men and 60 for women (paras. 133-136).

15. Amalgamation of the special schemes of unemployment insurance, for agriculture, banking and finance and insurance, with the general scheme of social insurance (paras. 137-148).

16. Abolition of the exceptions from insurance

(a) of persons in particular occupations, such as the civil service, local government service, police, nursing, railways, and other pensionable employments, and, in respect of unemployment insurance, private indoor domestic service ;

(b) of persons remunerated above £420 a year in non-manual occupations (paras. 149-152).

17. Replacement of unconditional inadequate widows’ pensions by provision suited to the varied needs of widows, including temporary widows’ benefit at a special rate in all cases, training benefit when required and guardian benefit so long as there are dependent children (paras.’153-156).

18 . Inclusion of universal funeral grant in compulsory insurance (paras. 157-160).

19. Transfer to the Ministry of Social Security of the remaining functions of Local Authorities in respect of public assistance, other than treatment and services of an institutional character (paras. 161-165).

20. Transfer to the Ministry of Social Security of responsibility for the maintenance of blind persons and the framing of a new scheme for maintenance and welfare by co-operation between the Ministry , Local Authorities and voluntary agencies (paras. 166-170).

21. Transfer to the Ministry of Social Security of the functions of the Assistance Board, of the work of the Customs and Excise Department in respect of non-contributory pensions, and probably of the employment service of the Ministry of Labour and National Service, in addition to unemployment insurance, and the work of other departments in connection with the administration of cash benefits of all kinds, including workmen’s compensation (paras. 171-175).

22. Substitution for the Unemployment Insurance Statutory Committee of a Social Insurance Statutory Committee with similar but extended powers (paras. 176-180).

[23. Conversion of the business of industrial assurance into a public service under an Industrial Assurance Board.] (paras. 181-192).

31.This considerable list of changes does not mean that, in the proposals of the Report, either the experience or the achievements of the past are forgotten. What is proposed today for unified social security springs out of what has been accomplished in building up security piece by piece. It retains the contributory principle of sharing the cost of security between three parties -the insured person himself, his employer, if he has an employer, and the State. It retains and extends the principle that compulsory insurance should provide a flat rate of benefit, irrespective of earnings, in return for a flat contribution from all. It retains as the best method of contribution the system of insurance documents and insurance stamps. It builds upon the experience gained in the administration of unemployment insurance and later of unemployment assistance, of a national administration which is not centralised at Whitehall but is carried out through responsible regional and local officers, acting at all points in close co-operation with representatives of the communities which they serve. It provides for retaining on a new basis the association of Friendly Societies with national health insurance. It provides for retaining within the general framework of a unified scheme some of the special features of workmen’s compensation and for converting the associations for mutual indemnity in the industries chiefly concerned into new organs of industrial co-operation and self-government. While completing the transfer from local to national government of assistance by cash payments, it retains a vital place for Local Authorities in the provision of institutions and in the organisation and maintenance of services connected with social welfare. The scheme proposed here is in some ways a revolution, but in more important ways it is a natural development from the past. It is a British revolution.

32. 32. The Plan for Social Security is put forward as something that could be in operation in the immediate aftermath of the war. In the Memorandum by the Government Actuary on the financial aspects of the plan, which is printed as Appendix A to the Report, it is assumed, for the purpose of relating the estimates of expenditure to the numbers of the population, that the plan will begin to operate on 1 st July, 1944, so that the first full year of benefit will be the calendar year 1945. But in view of the legislative and administrative work involved in bringing the plan into force, so early a date as this will be possible only if a decision of principle on the plan is taken in the near future by the Government and by Parliament.

PART V

PLAN FOR SOCIAL SECURITY

ASSUMPTIONS, METHODS AND PRINCIPLES

300. 300. Scope of Social Security : The term " social security " is used here to denote the securing of an income to take the place of earnings when they are interrupted by unemployment, sickness or accident, to provide for retirement through age, to provide against loss of support by the death of another person, and to meet exceptional expenditures, such as those connected with birth, death and marriage. Primarily social security means security. of income up to a minimum, but the provision of an income should be associated with treatment designed to bring the interruption of earnings to an end as soon as possible.

301. Three Assumptions : No satisfactory scheme of social security can be devised except on the following assumptions

(A) Children’s allowances for children up to the age of 15 or if in full-time education up to the age of 16

(B) Comprehensive health and rehabilitation services for prevention and cure of disease and restoration of capacity for work, available to all members of the community ;

(C) Maintenance of employment, that is to say avoidance of mass unemployment.

The grounds for making these three assumptions, the methods of satisfying them and their relation to the social security scheme are discussed in Part VI. Children’s allowances will be added to all the insurance benefits and Pensions described below in paras. 320-349.

302. 302. Three Methods of Security : On these three assumptions, a Plan for Social Security is outlined below, combining three distinct methods : social insurance for basic needs ; national assistance for special cases ; voluntary insurance for additions to the basic provision. Social insurance means the providing of cash payments conditional upon compulsory contributions previously made by, or on behalf of, the insured persons-, irrespective of the resources of the individual at the time of the claim. Social insurance is much the most important of the three methods and is proposed here in a form as comprehensive as possible. But while social insurance can, and should, be the main instrument for guaranteeing income security, it cannot be the only one. It needs to be supplemented both by national assistance and by voluntary insurance. National assistance means the giving of cash payments conditional upon proved need at the time of the claim, irrespective of previous contributions but adjusted by consideration of individual circumstances and paid from the national exchequer. Assistance is an indispensable supplement to social insurance, however the scope of the latter may be widened. In addition to both of these there is place for voluntary insurance. Social insurance and national assistance organised by the State are designed to guarantee, on condition of service, a basic income for subsistence. The actual incomes and by consequence the normal standards of expenditure of different sections of the population differ greatly Making provision for these higher standards is primarily the function of the individual that is to say, it is a matter for free choice and voluntary insurance. But the State should make sure that its measures leave room and encouragement. for such voluntary insurance. The social insurance scheme is the greater part of the Plan for Social Security and its description occupies most of this Part of the Report. But the plan includes national assistance and voluntary insurance as well.

303. 303. Six Principles of Social Insurance : The social insurance scheme set out below as the chief method of social security embodies six fundamental principles

Flat rate of subsistence benefit
Flat rate of contribution
Unification of administrative responsibility
Adequacy of benefit
Comprehensiveness
Classification Classification

304. 304. Flat Rate of Subsistence Benefit : The first fundamental principle of the social insurance scheme is provision of a flat rate of insurance benefit, irrespective of the amount of the earnings which have been interrupted by unemployment or disability or ended by retirement ; exception is made only where prolonged disability has resulted from an industrial accident or disease. This principle follows from the recognition of the, place and importance of voluntary insurance in social security and distinguishes the scheme proposed. for Britain from the security schemes of Germany, the Soviet Union, the United States and most other countries with the exception of New Zealand. The flat rate is the same for all the principal forms of cessation of earning unemployment, disability, retirement ; for maternity and for widowhood there is a temporary benefit at a higher rate.

305. Flat Rate of Contribution : The second fundamental principle of the scheme is that the compulsory contribution required of each insured person or his employer is at a flat rate, irrespective of his means. All insured persons, rich or poor pay the same contributions for the same security ; those with larger means will pay more only to the extent that as tax-payers they pay more to the national Exchequer and so to the State share of the Social Insurance Fund. This feature distinguishes the scheme proposed for Britain from the scheme recently established in New Zealand under which the contributions are graduated by income, and are in effect an income-tax assigned to a particular service. Subject moreover to one exception, the contribution will be the same irrespective of the assumed degree of risk affecting particular individuals or forms of employment. The exception is the raising of a proportion of the special cost of benefits and pensions for industrial disability in occupations of high risk by a levy on employers proportionate to risk and payroll (paras 86-90 and 360).

306. Unification of Administrative Responsibility : The third fundamental principle is Unification of administrative responsibility in the interests of efficiency and economy. For each insured person there will be a single weekly contribution, in respect of all his benefits. There will be in each locality a Security Office able to deal with claims of every kind and all sides of security. The methods of paying different kinds of cash benefit will be different and will take account of the circumstances of insured persons, providing for payment at the home or elsewhere, as is necessary. All contributions will be paid into a single Social Insurance Fund and all benefits and other insurance payments will be paid from the fund.

307. 307. Adequacy of Benefit : the fourth fundamental principle is adequacy of benefit in amount and in time. The flat rate of benefit proposed is intended in itself to be sufficient without further resources to provide the minimum income needed for subsistence in all normal cases. It gives room and a basis for additional voluntary provision, but does not assume that in any case. The benefits are adequate also in time, that is to say except for contingencies of a temporary nature , they will continue indefinitely without means test, so long as the need continues, though subject to any change of conditions and treatment required by prolongation of the interruption in earning and occupation.

308. 308. Comprehensiveness : The fifth fundamental principle is that social insurance should be comprehensive, in respect both of the persons covered and of their needs. It should not leave either to national assistance or to voluntary insurance any risk so general or so uniform that social insurance can be justified. For national assistance involves a means test which may discourage voluntary insurance or personal saving. And voluntary insurance can never be sure of covering the ground. For any need moreover which, like direct funeral expenses, is so general and so uniform as to be a fit subject for insurance by compulsion, social insurance is much cheaper to administer than voluntary insurance.

309. 309. Classification : The sixth fundamental principle is that social insurance, while unified and comprehensive, must take account of the different ways of life of different sections of the community ; of those dependent on earnings by employment under contract of service, of those earning in other ways, of those rendering vital unpaid service as housewives, of those not yet of age to earn, and of those past earning. The term "classification" is used here to denote adjustment of insurance to the differing circumstances of each of these classes and to many varieties of need and circumstance within each insurance class. But the insurance classes are not economic or social classes

310. 310. Six Population Classes : the Plan for Social Security starts with consideration of the people and of their needs. From the point of view of social security the people of Britain fall into six main classes described briefly as I-Employees ; II-Others gainfully employed ; III-Housewives ; IV-Others of working age ; V-Below working age ; VI-Retired above working age. The precise definitions of each of these classes, the boundaries between them and the provision for passage from one to another are discussed in detail in paragraphs 314-319. The approximate numbers in each class and their relation to security needs, as listed in the following paragraph are given in table XVI. Some needs, for medical treatment and for burial are common to all classes. In addition to this, those in Class V (below working age) need children’s allowances, and those in class VI (Retired above working age) need pensions ; neither of these classes can be called on to contribute for social insurance. The other four classes all have different needs for which they will be insured by contributions made by or in respect of them. Class I (Employees), in addition to medical treatment, funeral expenses and pension, need security against interruption of earnings by unemployment and disability, however caused. Class II, ie, persons gainfully occupied otherwise than as employees, cannot be insured against loss of employment, but in addition to medical treatment, funeral expenses and pension they need provision for loss of earnings through disability and they need some provision for loss of livelihood. Class III (Housewives) not being gainfully occupied do not need compensation for loss of earnings through ’disability or otherwise, but, in addition to the common needs of treatment, funeral expenses and pension, they have a variety of special needs arising out of marriage. Class IV (Others of working age) is a heterogeneous class in which relatively few people remain for any large part of their lives : they all need provision for medical treatment, funeral expenses and retirement, and also for the risk of having to find a new means of livelihood.

311 Eight Primary Causes of Need  : The primary needs for social security are of eight kinds, reckoning the composite needs of a married woman as one and including also the needs of childhood (Assumption A) and the need for universal comprehensive medical treatment and rehabilitation (Assumption B). These needs are set out below ; to each there is attached in the security scheme a distinct insurance benefit or benefits. Assistance may enter to deal with any kind of need, where insurance benefit for any reason is inadequate or absent.

Unemployment : that is to say, inability to obtain employment by a person dependent on it and physically fit for it, met by unemployment benefit with removal and lodging grants.

Disability : that is to say, inability of a person of working age, through illness or accident, to pursue a gainful occupation, met by disability benefit and industrial pension.

Loss of Livelihood by person not dependent on paid employment, met by training benefit.

Retirement from occupation, paid or unpaid, through age, met by retirement pension.

Marriage needs of a woman, met by Housewive’s Policy including provision for

(1) Marriage, met by marriage grant.

(2) Maternity, met by maternity grant in all cases, and, in the case of a married woman in gainful occupation, also by maternity benefit for a period before and after confinement.

(3) Interruption or cessation of husband’s earnings by his unemployment, disability or retirement, met by share of benefit or pension with husband.

(4) Widowhood, met by provision varying according to circumstances Including temporary widow’s benefit for readjustment, guardian benefit while caring for children and training benefit if and when there are no children in need of care.

(5) Separation, ie end of husband’s maintenance by legal separation, or established desertion, met by adaptation of widowhood provisions, including separation benefit, guardian benefit and training benefit.

(6) Incapacity for household duties, met by provision of paid help in illness as part of treatment.

Funeral Expenses of self or any person for whom responsible, met by funeral grant.

Childhood, ’provided for by children’s allowances if in full-time education, till sixteen.

Physical Disease or Incapacity, met by medical treatment, domiciliary and institutional, for self and dependants in comprehensive health service and by post-medical rehabilitation.

312. O ther Needs : The needs listed in para. 311 are the only ones so general and so uniform as to be clearly fit subjects for compulsory insurance. There is, partly for historical reasons, a problem as to the provision to be made for fatal accidents and diseases arising out of employment, by means of an industrial grant. There are many other needs and risks which are sufficiently common to be suited for voluntary insurance, and to a varying extent are already covered by that method. They include a great variety of contingencies for which provision is made by life and endowment insurance ; there are risks of fire, theft, or accident ; there are exceptional expenditures such as those on holidays and education.

313. 313. Explanation of Terms : Before defining more closely the classes into which the people must be divided for purposes of social security, it is necessary to explain three terms. " Exception " means that certain types of persons are not within a particular class, though apart from the exception they would be ; exception is general, not individual, altering the definition of a class’. Exemption " means that a person though within a particular class is exempted individually from paying the contributions of that class ; his employer, if he has one, remains liable for contributions, but these contributions are not counted in judging of the insured person’s claim to benefit. " Excusal " means that contributions for which an insured person and his employer, if he has one, would otherwise be liable, are not required, but for the purpose of satisfying contribution conditions for benefit are deemed to have been paid ; excusal is normally conditional on the insured person proving that he is unemployed or incapable of work. Exemption and excusal are dealt with more fully in paras. 3

314. 314. Employees (Class I) : These are, in general, persons depending for their maintenance upon remuneration received under a contract of service, including apprenticeship. The exact boundaries of this class will be adjusted by certain exceptions and inclusions. There will also be provision for exemption, that is to say, for allowing persons who take work falling within Class I to escape payment of their contributions while still requiring contributions by the employer. Insured persons in this class will hold an employment book which they will present to the employer for stamping.

The principal exception suggested is for family employment, that is to say, employment of one member of a family by another forming part of the same household. This is a development of the existing exception of fathers, sons, daughters, etc., under Agricultural Unemployment Insurance, and is designed to prevent fictitious claims for benefit. Persons excluded from Class I by this exception will fall into Class II.

Persons in Class II or IV taking work temporarily under a contract of service will be allowed to claim exemption from their own contributions, and persons in Class Ill undertaking such work will be allowed to obtain exemption so long as they desire it. Exempt persons will present to the employer a special card to be stamped. by him with the employer’ contribution.

On the other hand, certain exceptions and exemptions under the present scheme will no longer apply.- In particular.-

  1. There will be no exception of employees on the ground of the regularity of their employment or that it entitles them to pension. The basis of the security scheme is that all should contribute compulsorily irrespective of their personal risk. For men in the Armed Forces special arrangements for contribution will secure their rights to the benefits of the scheme when they return to civil life. For men in the merchant service there will be special arrangements for contribution adjusted to the conditions of their employment.
  2. There will be no exception of any employees by a remuneration limit.
  3. The right of persons above normal working age to claim exemption will cease on the introduction of the principle that pension is payable only on retirement from work and that men and women reaching the ages of 65 and 60 respectively, will have the option either of continuing to work and contribute or of retiring on pension at any time thereafter.

The possibility of either including in Class I and so insuring against unemployment certain classes of persons who are not technically under a contract of service but work in effect for employers (eg manual labour contractors, out-workers and private nurses) or of insuring such classes by special schemes, taking account of their special circumstances, needs further exploration. In one of these classes for instance, namely nurses, in addition to the fact that nurses work sometimes under contract of service and sometimes not, there are special needs arising out of their exposure to infection and out of the urgency of their duties, rendering necessary the possibility of intervals for rest and recuperation. The problem of giving some income security under a special scheme to share fishermen should also be explored. As stated above, apprentices generally will be included in Class I, but special arrangements may be made in regard to their rate of contribution (see para. 408).

315. 315. Others Gainfully Occupied (Class II) : These are, in general, all persons working for gain who are not in Class I. Most of these will be persons working on their own account as employers or by themselves, including shopkeepers and hawkers, farmers, small holders and crofters, share fishermen, entertainers and renderers of professional and personal service and out-workers. They will include also persons who, though technically under contract of service, are excepted from Class I on the ground of family employment. Apart from the possibilities whose exploration is proposed above, persons gainfully occupied otherwise than under contract of service will not be insured against unemployment. Persons in Class II will pay contributions upon an occupation card. If a person in Class II gives up his independent occupation and takes insurable employment he will pass into Class I and will in due course acquire a claim to unemployment benefit in addition to the other benefits of Class II. If he takes insurable employment temporarily he will be allowed to work as an exempt person, ie only the employer’s contribution will be paid and he will neither contribute for unemployment nor acquire a right to unemployment benefit. Conversely, a person whose main occupation is employment under a contract of service but who also works regularly or occasionally at some other gainful occupation, will be able to obtain exemption from Class II contributions. Persons in Class II will be able to apply for exemption on the ground that their income is below a certain minimum, say £75 a year (para. 363).

316. 316. Housewives (Class III) : These are married women of working age living with their husbands. An housewife who undertakes paid work as well, either under a contract of service or otherwise, will have the choice either of contributing in the ordinary way in Class 1 or Class II as the case may be, or of working as an exempt person, paying no contributions of her own

317. 317. Others of Working Age (Class IV) . These are in the main students above 16, unmarried women engaged in domestic duties not for pay, persons of private means, and persons incapacitated by blindness or other physical infirmity without being qualified for benefits under the social insurance scheme. The last of these groups will be a diminishing one. Blindness and other physical infirmities will occur in most cases after people have had a chance of contributing under the scheme and qualifying for disability benefit. At the outset there will be a number of people who became incapacitated before the scheme began. After the scheme has been established, persons in receipt of any benefit or pension in respect of contributions in other classes will be treated as still belonging to those classes and not as in Class IV. Those incapacitated or in institutions will be subject to the special arrangements appropriate in each case. All the others in Class IV will be required to hold security cards and to pay contributions thereon unless and until they pass into another class. This security card must be produced to obtain an employment book or occupation card. Persons in Class IV will be able to apply for exemption from contributions on the ground that their total income is below a certain minimum, say £75 a year (para. 363).

318. 318. Below Working Age (Class V) : This class will include all persons below 16 who are in full-time education, whether compulsorily or voluntarily.

319. 319. Retired Above Working Age (Class VI) : The minimum pensionable age for retirement on social insurance pension will be 65 for men and 60 for women, but persons who continue to work after these ages will pay contributions in the ordinary way and will be treated as belonging to Class 1 or Class II.


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Sir William Beveridge : Sir William Beveridge :
Social and Allied Services (The Beveridge Report), 1942 Sociaux et des services connexes (le rapport Beveridge), 1942


Social Insurance and Allied Services D’assurance sociale et services connexes

Report by Sir William Beveridge Rapport Beveridge Sir William

Presented to Parliament by Command of His Majesty Présenté au Parlement par le commandement de Sa Majesté

November 1942 Novembre 1942

HMSO HMSO

CMND 6404 Cmnd 6404

What follows is what would these days be called an executive summary of the report, together with the detailed section on Assumptions, Methods and Principles. Ce qui suit est ce qui allait être appelé ces jours-ci un résumé du rapport, en collaboration avec la section détaillée sur les hypothèses, méthodes et principes. The full report runs to 300 pages. Le rapport complet fonctionne à 300 pages.

THREE GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF RECOMMENDATIONS TROIS PRINCIPES DIRECTEURS DES RECOMMANDATIONS

6. 6. In proceeding from this first comprehensive survey of social insurance to the next task - of making recommendations - three guiding principles may be laid down at the outset. En procédant de cette première enquête globale de l’assurance sociale à la tâche suivante - de formuler des recommandations - trois principes directeurs peuvent être fixées dès le départ.

7. 7. The first principle is that any proposals for the future, while they should use to the full the experience gathered in the past, should not be restricted by consideration of sectional interests established in the obtaining of that experience. Le premier principe est que toutes les propositions pour l’avenir, alors qu’ils devraient utiliser pleinement l’expérience acquise dans le passé, ne devrait pas être limité par l’examen des intérêts sectoriels établis dans l’obtention de cette expérience. Now, when the war is abolishing landmarks of every kind, is the opportunity for using experience in a clear field. Maintenant, quand la guerre est la suppression monuments de toute nature, est l’occasion d’utiliser l’expérience dans un champ libre. A revolutionary moment in the world’s history is a time for revolutions, not for patching. Un moment révolutionnaire dans le monde de l’histoire de la ya un temps pour les révolutions, pas pour le colmatage.

8. 8. The second principle is that organisation of social insurance should be treated as one part only of a comprehensive policy of social progress. Le deuxième principe est que l’organisation de l’assurance sociale doivent être traités comme une seule partie d’une politique globale de progrès social. Social insurance fully developed may provide income security ; it is an attack upon Want. d’assurance sociale pleinement développée peut assurer la sécurité du revenu, c’est une attaque contre Want. But Want is one only of five giants on the road of reconstruction and in some ways the easiest to attack. Mais nous voulons un seul de cinq géants sur la voie de la reconstruction et à certains égards la plus facile à attaquer. The others are Disease, Ignorance, Squalor and Idleness. Les autres sont des maladies, l’ignorance, la misère et l’oisiveté.

9. 9. The third principle is that social security must be achieved by co-operation between the State and the individual. Le troisième principe est que la sécurité sociale doit être atteint par la coopération entre l’État et l’individu. The State should offer security for service and contribution. L’État doit offrir une sécurité pour le service et la contribution. The State in organising security should not stifle incentive, opportunity, responsibility ; in establishing a national minimum, it should leave room and encouragement for voluntary action by each individual to provide more than that minimum for himself and his family. L’Etat dans l’organisation de la sécurité ne doit pas étouffer incitation, l’occasion, la responsabilité, en établissant un salaire minimum national, il convient de laisser de la place et l’encouragement à l’action volontaire par chaque individu à fournir plus de ce minimum pour lui et sa famille.

10. 10. The Plan for Social Security set out in this Report is built upon these principles. It uses experience but is not tied by experience. Le plan de la sécurité sociale énoncées dans le présent rapport est fondé sur ces principes. Il utilise l’expérience, mais n’est pas liée par l’expérience. It is put forward as a limited contribution to a wider social policy, though as something that could be achieved now without waiting for the whole of that policy. Il est présenté comme une contribution limitée à un plus large politique sociale, mais comme quelque chose qui pourrait être atteint maintenant sans attendre pour l’ensemble de cette politique. It is, first and foremost, a plan of insurance - of giving in return for contributions benefits up to subsistence level, as of right and without means test, so that individuals may build freely upon it. Il est, d’abord et avant tout, un régime d’assurance - de donner en retour d’avantages contributions jusqu’au niveau de subsistance, de plein droit et sans condition de ressources, afin que les individus peuvent construire librement sur elle.

THE WAY TO FREEDOM FROM WANT Marche vers la liberté de la misère

11. 11. The work of the Inter-departmental Committee began with a reviews of existing schemes of social insurance and allied services. Les travaux du comité interministériel a commencé par un examen des systèmes existants de l’assurance sociale et des services connexes. The Plan for Social Security, with which that work ends, starts from a diagnosis of want - of the circumstances in which, in the years just preceding the present war families and individuals in Britain might lack the means of healthy subsistence. Le plan de la sécurité sociale, avec laquelle ce travail se termine, commence à partir d’un diagnostic du besoin - des circonstances dans lesquelles, dans les années qui précèdent la guerre actuelle des familles et des particuliers en Grande-Bretagne pourraient manquer de moyens de subsistance en bonne santé. During those years impartial scientific authorities made social surveys of the conditions of life in a number of principal towns in Britain, including London, Liverpool, Sheffield, Plymouth, Southampton, York and Bristol. Durant ces années, les autorités scientifiques impartiaux fait les enquêtes sociales des conditions de vie dans un certain nombre de villes principales en Grande-Bretagne, notamment à Londres, Liverpool, Sheffield, Plymouth, Southampton, Bristol et York. They determined the proportions of the people in each town whose means were below the standard assumed to be necessary for subsistence, and they analysed the extent and causes of that deficiency. Ils ont déterminé les proportions de la population dans chaque ville dont les moyens ont été inférieurs à la norme supposée être nécessaires pour assurer leur subsistance, et ils ont analysé l’ampleur et les causes de cette carence. From each of these social surveys the same broad result emerges. De chacun de ces enquêtes sociales les grandes même résultat ressort. Of all the want shown by the surveys, from three-quarters to five-sixths, according to the precise standard chosen for want, was due to interruption or loss of earning power. De tous les voulez en attestent les sondages, de trois quarts à cinq sixièmes, conformément à la norme précise choisi pour le souhaitez, était due à l’interruption ou la perte de pouvoir d’achat. Practically the whole of the remaining one-quarter to one-sixth was due to failure to relate income during earning to the size of the family. Pratiquement la totalité du solde de un quart à un sixième a été due à l’échec de lier le revenu au cours de gain à la taille de la famille. These surveys were made before the introduction of supplementary pensions had reduced the amount of poverty amongst old persons. Ces enquêtes ont été réalisées avant l’introduction des pensions complémentaires a réduit le montant de la pauvreté parmi les personnes âgées. But this does not affect the main conclusion to be drawn from these surveys : abolition of want requires a double re-distribution of income, through social insurance and by family needs. Mais cela n’affecte pas la principale conclusion à tirer de ces enquêtes : l’abolition de la misère a besoin d’un nouveau double-distribution des revenus, grâce à l’assurance sociale et par les besoins de la famille.

12. 12. Abolition of want requires, first, improvement of State insurance that is to say provision against interruption and loss of earning power All the principal causes of interruption or loss of earnings are now the subject of schemes of social insurance. L’abolition de la misère exige, en premier lieu, l’amélioration de l’assurance État c’est-à-dire contre une interruption de la fourniture et la perte de pouvoir d’achat Toutes les principales causes d’interruption ou de la perte de revenus sont maintenant l’objet de régimes d’assurance sociale. If, in spite of these schemes, so many persons unemployed or sick or old or widowed are found to be without adequate income for subsistence according to the standards adopted in the social surveys, this means that the benefits amount to less than subsistence by those standards or do not last as long as the need, and that the assistance which supplements insurance is either insufficient in amount or available only on terms which make men unwilling to have recourse to it. Si, en dépit de ces régimes, de nombreuses personnes ainsi au chômage ou malades ou âgées ou veuves sont jugées sans revenus suffisants pour sa subsistance selon les normes adoptées dans les enquêtes sociales, cela signifie que le montant des prestations à moins de subsistance par les normes ou de ne pas durer aussi longtemps que la nécessité, et que l’assistance qui complète l’assurance est soit insuffisant, le montant ou disponibles uniquement sur des termes qui font les hommes ne veulent pas avoir recours à elle. None of the insurance benefits provided before the war were in fact designed with reference to the standards of the social surveys. Aucun des prestations d’assurance prévues avant la guerre ont en fait été conçu en référence aux normes des enquêtes sociales. Though unemployment benefit was not altogether out of relation to those standards, sickness and disablement benefit, old age pensions and widows’ pensions were far below them, while workmen’s compensation was below subsistence level for anyone who had family responsibilities or whose earnings in work were less than twice the amount needed for subsistence. Bien que l’allocation de chômage n’a pas été tout à fait hors de la relation à ces normes, la maladie et de prestations d’invalidité, les pensions de vieillesse et les pensions des veuves ont été bien en deçà eux, tandis que la réparation des accidents a été en dessous du niveau de subsistance pour tous ceux qui avaient des responsabilités familiales ou dont les revenus du travail étaient moins de deux fois le montant nécessaire pour assurer leur subsistance. To prevent interruption or destruction of earning power from leading to want, it is necessary to improve the present schemes of social insurance in three directions : by extension of scope to cover persons now excluded, by extension of purposes to cover risks now excluded, and by raising the rates of benefit. Pour éviter l’interruption ou la destruction de la capacité de gain provenant de vouloir, il est nécessaire d’améliorer les programmes actuels de l’assurance sociale dans trois directions : par extension du champ d’application aux personnes actuellement exclues, par extension, des fins de couvrir les risques sont actuellement exclus, et par relèvement du taux des prestations.

13. 13. Abolition of want requires, second, adjustment of incomes, in periods of earning as well as in interruption of earning, to family needs, that is to say, in one form or another it requires allowances for children. L’abolition de la misère exige, d’autre part, l’ajustement des revenus, dans les périodes de gagner ainsi que l’interruption de revenus, aux besoins des familles, c’est-à-dire, sous une forme ou une autre, il exige des allocations pour les enfants. Without such allowances as part of benefit -or added to it, to make provision for large families, no social insurance against interruption of earnings can be adequate. Sans ces allocations dans le cadre de la prestation ou ajoutés, de prendre des dispositions pour grande famille, pas d’assurance sociale contre l’arrêt de rémunération ne peut être adéquate. But, if children’s allowances are given only when earnings are interrupted and are not given during earning also, two evils are unavoidable. Mais, si les allocations aux enfants ne sont donnés qu’à lorsque la rémunération est interrompu et ne sont pas donnés au cours de gagner également, deux maux sont inévitables. First, a substantial measure of acute want will remain among the lower paid workers as the accompaniment of large families. Tout d’abord, une mesure importante de aiguë voulez restera parmi les plus bas salariés que l’accompagnement des familles nombreuses. Second, in all such cases, income will be greater during unemployment or other interruptions of work than during work. Deuxièmement, dans tous ces cas, le revenu sera plus grande en cas de chômage ou d’autres interruptions de travail que pendant le travail.

14. 14. By a double re-distribution of income through social insurance and children’s allowances, want, as defined in the social surveys, could have been abolished in Britain before the present war. Par une double distribution à nouveau des revenus grâce à l’assurance sociale et les allocations des enfants, voulons, tel que défini dans les enquêtes sociales, pourrait avoir été abolie en Grande-Bretagne avant la guerre actuelle. As is shown in para. Comme il est indiqué au paragraphe. 445, the income available to the British people was ample for such a purpose. 445, le revenu disponible pour la population britannique a été suffisant pour une telle fin. The Plan for Social Security set out in Part V of this Report takes abolition of want after this war as its aim. Le plan de la sécurité sociale énoncées dans la partie V du présent rapport prend l’abolition de la misère, après cette guerre comme son but. It includes as its main method compulsory social insurance, with national assistance and voluntary insurance as subsidiary, methods. Il comprend que sa méthode principale assurance sociale obligatoire, avec l’aide nationale et de l’assurance volontaire, comme filiale, des méthodes. It assumes allowances for dependent children, as part of its background. Il assume les allocations pour enfants à charge, dans le cadre de son arrière-plan. The plan assumes also establishment of comprehensive health and rehabilitation services and maintenance of employment, that is to say avoidance of mass unemployment, as necessary conditions of success in social insurance. Le plan prévoit également l’établissement de santé complets et des services de réadaptation et de maintien de l’emploi, c’est-à-dire éviter le chômage de masse, comme des conditions nécessaires de réussite à l’assurance sociale. These three measures - of children’s allowances, health and rehabilitation and maintenance of employment-are described as assumptions A,B and C of the plan ; they fall partly within and partly without the plan extending into other fields of social policy. Ces trois mesures - des allocations des enfants, la santé et de la réhabilitation et l’entretien de l’emploi sont décrits comme des hypothèses A, B et C du plan, ils relèvent pour partie de et en partie sans le plan de l’extension dans d’autres domaines de la politique sociale. They are discussed, not in the detailed exposition of the plan in Part V of the Report, but in Part VI, which is concerned with social security in relation to wider issues. Elles sont examinées, non pas dans l’exposé détaillé du plan de la partie V du rapport, mais dans la partie VI, qui est préoccupé par la sécurité sociale en ce qui concerne des questions plus larges.

15. 15. The plan is based on a diagnosis of want. Le plan est fondé sur un diagnostic du besoin. It starts from facts, from the condition of the people as revealed by social surveys between the two wars. Il commence à partir de faits, de la condition des personnes tel que révélé par les enquêtes sociales entre les deux guerres. It takes account of two other facts about the British community, arising out of past movements of the birth rate and the death rate, which should dominate planning for its future ; the main effects of these movements in determining the present and future of the British people are shown by Table XI in para. Il tient compte de deux autres faits sur la communauté britannique, découlant de mouvements passés du taux de natalité et le taux de mortalité, qui devrait dominer la planification de son avenir ; les principaux effets de ces mouvements pour déterminer le présent et l’avenir du peuple britannique sont représentés par le tableau XI à l’al. 234. 234. The first of the two facts is the age constitution of the population, making it certain that persons past the age that is now regarded as the end of working life will be a much larger proportion of the whole community than at any time in the past. Le premier de ces deux faits est la constitution d’âge de la population, ce qui rend certaines personnes qui ont dépassé l’âge qui est maintenant considérée comme la fin de la vie professionnelle sera une plus grande proportion beaucoup plus de toute la communauté qu’à aucun autre moment dans le passé. The second fact is the low reproduction rate of the British community today : unless this rate is raised very materially in the near future, a rapid and continuous decline of the population cannot be prevented. Le second fait est le faible taux de reproduction de la communauté britannique d’aujourd’hui : à moins que ce taux est porté très importante dans un proche avenir, une baisse continue et rapide de la population ne peut être empêchée. The first fact makes it necessary to seek ways of postponing the age of retirement from work rather than of hastening It. Le premier fait, il est nécessaire de rechercher les moyens de retarder l’âge de la retraite du travail plutôt que de hâter Il. The second fact makes it imperative to give first place in social expenditure to the care of childhood and to the safeguarding of maternity. Le second fait, il est impératif de donner la première place dans les dépenses sociales pour la prise en charge de l’enfance et à la protection de la maternité.

16. 16. The provision to be made for old age represents the largest and most growing element in any social insurance scheme. La disposition à faire de la vieillesse représente la plus grande croissance et plus important élément dans tout régime d’assurance sociale. The problem of age is discussed accordingly in Part III of the Report as one of three special problems ; the measures proposed for dealing with this problem are summarised in paras. Le problème de l’âge est discuté en conséquence à la partie III du rapport que l’un des trois problèmes particuliers ; les mesures proposées pour faire face à ce problème sont résumés dans les paragraphes. 254-257. 254-257. Briefly, the proposal is to introduce for all citizens adequate pensions without means test by stages over a transition period of twenty years, while providing immediate assistance pensions for persons requiring them. In adopting a transition period for pensions as of right, while meeting immediate needs subject to consideration of means, the Plan for Social Security in Britain follows the precedent of New Zealand. En bref, la proposition est d’introduire pour tous les citoyens des pensions adéquates sans condition de ressources par étapes sur une période de transition de vingt ans, tout en fournissant une assistance immédiate des pensions pour les personnes en ont besoin. En adoptant une période de transition pour les pensions de plein droit, tout en répondant aux besoins immédiats soumis à l’examen des moyens, le plan de la sécurité sociale en Grande-Bretagne suit le précédent de la Nouvelle-Zélande. The final rate of pensions in New Zealand is higher than that proposed in this Plan, but is reached only after a transition period of twenty-eight years as compared with twenty years suggested here ; after twenty years, the New Zealand rate is not very materially different from the basic rate proposed for Britain. Le taux final des pensions en Nouvelle-Zélande est plus élevé que celui proposé dans ce plan, mais n’est atteint qu’après une période de transition de vingt-huit ans, comparativement avec vingt ans suggérées ici, après vingt ans, le taux de Nouvelle-Zélande n’est pas très importante différent du taux de base proposés pour la Grande-Bretagne. The New Zealand pensions are not conditional upon retirement from work ; for Britain it is proposed that they should be retirement pensions and that persons who continue at work and postpone retirement should be able to increase their pensions above the basic rate. Les nouvelles pensions-Zélande ne sont pas subordonnée à la cessation du travail, car la Grande-Bretagne, il est proposé qu’ils soient des pensions de retraite et que les personnes qui continuent à travailler et de retarder la retraite devrait être en mesure d’augmenter leurs pensions au-dessus du taux de base. The New Zealand scheme is less favourable than the plan for Britain in starting at a lower level ; it is more favourable some other respects. Le régime de la Nouvelle-Zélande est moins favorable que le projet de Grande-Bretagne en commençant à un niveau inférieur ; elle est plus favorable à certains égards d’autres. Broadly the two schemes for two communities of the British race are plans on the same lines to solve the same problem of passage from pensions based on need to pensions paid as of right to all citizens in virtue of contribution. En gros, les deux régimes pour les deux communautés de la race britannique est prévu dans le même sens pour résoudre le même problème de passage des pensions en fonction des besoins pour les pensions versées de plein droit à tous les citoyens en vertu de la contribution.

SUMMARY OF PLAN FOR SOCIAL SECURITY Résumé du plan de la sécurité sociale

17. 17. The main feature of the Plan for Social Security is a scheme of social insurance against interruption and destruction of earning power and for special expenditure arising at birth, marriage or death. La caractéristique principale du plan de la sécurité sociale est un régime d’assurance sociale contre l’interruption et la destruction de pouvoir d’achat et pour les dépenses spéciales acquises à la naissance, de mariage ou de décès. The scheme embodies six fundamental principles : flat rate of subsistence benefit ; flat rate of contribution ; unification of administrative responsibility ; adequacy of benefit ; comprehensiveness ; and classification. Le régime incarne six principes fondamentaux : tarif forfaitaire de l’allocation de subsistance ; forfaitaire de contribution, l’unification de la responsabilité administrative, l’adéquation des prestations ; l’intégralité et la classification. These principles are explained in paras. Ces principes sont expliqués dans les paragraphes. 303-309. 303-309. Based on them and in combination with national assistance and voluntary insurance as subsidiary methods, the aim of the Plan for Social Security is to make want under any circumstances unnecessary. Basé sur eux et en combinaison avec l’aide nationale et de l’assurance volontaire que les méthodes filiale, l’objectif du plan de la sécurité sociale est de rendre veut en aucun cas inutile.

19. 19. The main provisions of the plan may be summarised as follows : Les principales dispositions du plan peuvent être résumés comme suit :

(i) The plan covers all citizens without upper income limit, but. (I) Le plan couvre tous les citoyens sans limite de revenu supérieur, mais. has regard a ce qui concerne

to their different ways of life ; it is a plan all-embracing in à leurs modes de vie différents, c’est un plan qui embrasse tout en scope of persons and of needs, but is classified in application. la portée des personnes et des besoins, mais est classé en application.

(ii) (Ii) In relation to social security the population falls into four main classes of En matière de sécurité sociale de la population est divisée en quatre grandes catégories de working age and two others below and above working age respectively, as follows : âge de travailler et de deux autres ci-dessous et ci-dessus en âge de travailler, respectivement, comme suit :

    1. Employees, that is, persons whose normal occupation is employment under contract of service. Les employés, qui est, les personnes dont la profession est normal d’emploi sous contrat de service.
    2. Others gainfully occupied, including employers, traders and independent workers of all kinds. Autres occuper un emploi rémunéré, y compris les employeurs, les commerçants et les travailleurs indépendants de toutes sortes.
    3. Housewives, that is married women of working age. Housewives, c’est les femmes mariées en âge de travailler.
    4. Others of working age not gainfully occupied. D’autres en âge de travailler n’est pas une profession lucrative.
    5. Below working age. Ci-dessous en âge de travailler.
    6. Retired above working age. Retraité ci-dessus en âge de travailler.

(iii) The sixth of these classes will receive retirement pensions and the fifth will be covered by children’s allowances, which will be paid from the National Exchequer in respect of all children when the responsible parent is in receipt of insurance benefit or pension, and in respect of all children except one in other cases. (Iii) Le sixième de ces classes recevront des pensions de retraite et le cinquième sera couvert par les allocations des enfants, qui seront payés par la Trésorerie nationale à l’égard de tous les enfants lorsque le parent responsable est bénéficiaire d’une prestation d’assurance ou de retraite, et en le respect de tous les enfants sauf un dans les autres cas. The four other classes will be insured for security appropriate to their circumstances. Les quatre autres classes seront assurés en matière de sécurité adaptées à leur situation. All classes will be covered for comprehensive medical treatment and rehabilitation and for funeral expenses. Toutes les catégories seront couverts pour les soins médicaux complets et de réadaptation et pour frais funéraires.

(iv) Every person in Class I, II or IV will pay a single security contribution by a stamp on a single insurance document each week or combination of weeks. (Iv) Toute personne de la classe I, II ou IV paiera une contribution unique de sécurité par un tampon sur un document unique de l’assurance de chaque semaine ou une combinaison de semaines. In Class I the employer also will contribute, affixing the insurance stamp and deducting the employee’s share from wages or salary. Dans la classe I de l’employeur contribuera également, l’apposition du cachet d’assurance et en déduisant la part du salarié sur le salaire ou traitement. The contribution will differ from one class to another, according to the benefits provided, and will be higher for men than for women, so as to secure benefits for Class Ill. La contribution sera différent d’une classe à l’autre, selon les prestations fournies, et sera plus élevé pour les hommes que pour les femmes, afin d’assurer des avantages pour la classe Ill

(v) Subject to simple contribution conditions, every person in Class I will receive benefit for unemployment and disability, pension on retirement, medical treatment and funeral expenses. (V) Sous réserve des conditions de cotisation simple, chaque personne dans la classe je vais recevoir des prestations de chômage et d’invalidité, pension de retraite, des soins médicaux et les frais funéraires. Persons in Class II will receive all these except unemployment benefit and disability benefit during the first 13 weeks of disability. Les personnes de la classe II recevra toutes ces prestations de chômage et à l’exception des prestations d’invalidité au cours des 13 premières semaines d’invalidité. Persons in Class IV will receive all these except unemployment and disability benefit. Les personnes de la classe IV recevra tous ces sauf le chômage et de prestations d’invalidité. As a substitute for unemployment benefit, training benefit will be available to persons in all classes other than Class 1, to assist them to find new livelihoods if their present ones fail. En remplacement des prestations de chômage, prestations de formation seront disponibles pour les personnes dans toutes les classes autres que la classe 1, pour les aider à trouver des nouveaux moyens de subsistance si leurs êtres présents échouer. Maternity grant, provision for widowhood and separation and qualification for retirement pensions will be secured to all persons in Class III by virtue of their husbands’ contributions ; in addition to maternity grant, housewives who take paid work will receive maternity benefit for thirteen weeks to enable them to give up working before and after childbirth. La prime de maternité, les prestations aux veuves et à la séparation et de qualification pour les pensions de retraite sera assurée à toutes les personnes de la classe III en vertu de maris leurs contributions, en plus de l’allocation de maternité, femmes au foyer qui prennent un emploi rémunéré recevront des prestations de maternité pendant treize semaines pour permettre aux leur d’arrêter de travailler avant et après l’accouchement.

(vi) Unemployment benefit, disability benefit, basic retirement pension after a transition period, and training benefit will be at the same rate, irrespective of previous earnings. (Vi) les prestations de chômage, de prestations d’invalidité, pension de retraite de base après une période de transition, et de bénéficier de formation seront à la même vitesse, indépendamment des gains antérieurs. This rate will provide by itself the income necessary for subsistence in all normal cases. Ce taux sera de fournir par elle-même les revenus nécessaires pour assurer leur subsistance dans tous les cas normaux. There will be a joint rate for a man and wife who is not gainfully occupied. Where there is no wife or she is gainfully occupied, there will be a lower single rate ; where there is no wife but a dependant above the age for children’s allowance, there will be a dependant allowance. Il y aura un taux commun pour un homme et une femme qui n’est pas une profession lucrative. Lorsqu’il n’ya pas de femme ou qu’elle exerce une activité rémunérée, il y aura un taux unique, où il n’ya pas de femme, mais une personne à charge ayant dépassé l’âge de l’allocation pour les enfants , il y aura une indemnité à charge. Maternity benefit for housewives who work also for gain will be at a higher rate than the single rate in unemployment or disability, while their unemployment and disability benefit will be at a lower rate ; there are special rates also for widowhood as described below. Prestations de maternité pour les femmes au foyer qui travaillent également pour le gain sera à un taux plus élevé que le taux unique de chômage ou d’invalidité, tandis que leur taux de chômage et de prestations d’invalidité seront à un taux inférieur, il ya aussi des tarifs spéciaux pour le veuvage comme décrit ci-dessous. With these exceptions all rates of benefit will be the same for men and for women. A ces exceptions près tous les tarifs des prestations seront les mêmes pour les hommes et les femmes. Disability due to industrial accident or disease will be treated like all other disability for the first thirteen weeks ; if disability continues thereafter, disability benefit at a flat rate will be replaced by an industrial pension related to the earnings of the individual subject to a minimum and a maximum. maladie invalidité due à un accident industriel ou seront traitées comme toutes les autres personnes handicapées pour les treize premières semaines, si l’invalidité se poursuit par la suite, des prestations d’invalidité à un taux forfaitaire sera remplacée par une pension industrielles liées à la rémunération de la personne soumise à un minimum et un maximum.

(vii) Unemployment benefit will continue at the same rate without means test so long as unemployment lasts, but will normally be subject to a condition of attendance at a work or training centre after a certain period. (Vii) L’allocation de chômage va continuer au même rythme sans condition de ressources tant que le chômage dure, mais sera normalement soumis à une condition de présence au travail ou un centre de formation après une certaine période. Disability benefit will continue at the same rate without means test, so long as disability lasts or till it is replaced by industrial pension, subject to acceptance of prestations d’invalidité se poursuivra au même rythme sans condition de ressources, tant que dure l’invalidité ou jusqu’à ce qu’elle soit remplacée par la pension d’industriels, sous réserve d’acceptation suitable medical treatment or vocational training. un traitement médical approprié ou une formation professionnelle.

    1. Pensions (other than industrial) will be paid only on retirement from work. Pensions (autres que les industriels) ne seront versées que sur la retraite du travail. They may be claimed at any time after the minimum age of retirement, that is 65 for men and 60 for women. Ils peuvent être réclamés à tout moment après l’âge minimum de départ à la retraite, c’est 65 ans pour les hommes et 60 pour les femmes. The rate of pension will be increased above the basic rate if retirement is postponed. Le taux de la pension sera augmentée au-dessus du taux de base si la retraite est reporté. Contributory pensions as of right will be raised to the full basic rate gradually during a transition period of twenty years, in which adequate pensions according to needs will be paid to all persons requiring them. pensions contributives de droit sera porté à la base à taux plein progressivement au cours d’une période de transition de vingt ans, dans lequel des pensions adéquates en fonction des besoins sera versée à toutes les personnes en ont besoin. The position of existing pensioners will be safeguarded. La position des retraités actuels seront préservés.
    2. While permanent pensions will no longer be granted to widows of working age without dependent children, there will be for all widows a temporary benefit at a higher rate than unemployment or disability benefit, followed by training benefit where necessary. Si les pensions permanente ne sera plus accordée aux veuves en âge de travailler, sans enfants à charge, il y aura pour toutes les veuves d’une prestation temporaire à un taux plus élevé que le chômage ou de prestations d’invalidité, prestations de formation suivie le cas échéant. For widows with the care of dependent children there will be guardian benefit, in addition. Pour les veuves avec le soin des enfants à charge, il y aura des avantages tuteur, en plus. to the children’s allowances, adequate for subsistence without other means. pour les allocations pour enfants l’, suffisants pour sa subsistance, sans d’autres moyens. The position of existing widows on pension will be safeguarded. La situation des veuves en vigueur sur les pensions seront sauvegardés.

(x) For the limited number of cases of need not covered by social insurance, national assistance subject to a uniform means test will be available. (X) Pour le nombre limité de cas de besoin ne sont pas couverts par l’assurance sociale, sous réserve d’aide nationaux d’une application uniforme des moyens de test sera disponible.

(xi) Medical treatment covering all requirements will be provided for all citizens by a national health service organised under the health departments and post-medical rehabilitation treatment will be provided for all persons capable of profiting by it. (Xi) le traitement médical couvrant tous les besoins seront fournis pour tous les citoyens par un service national de santé assurée par les ministères de la santé et de réadaptation médicale de traitement post sera fourni pour toutes les personnes capables d’en profiter.

(xii) A Ministry of Social Security will be established, responsible for social insurance, national assistance and encouragement and supervision of voluntary insurance and will take over, so far as necessary for these purposes, the present work of other Government Departments and of 1-ocal Authorities in these fields. (Xii), le ministère de la Sécurité sociale sera mis en place, responsable de l’assurance sociale, l’aide nationale et de l’encouragement et la supervision de l’assurance volontaire et prendre en charge, autant que de besoin à ces fins, le présent travail des autres ministères du gouvernement et de 1 - Ocal autorités dans ces domaines.

THE NATURE OF SOCIAL INSURANCE LA NATURE DE L’ASSURANCE SOCIALE

20. 20. Under the scheme of social insurance, which forms the main feature of this plan, every citizen of working age will contribute in his appropriate class according to the security that he needs, or as a married woman will have contributions made by the husband. Dans le cadre du régime d’assurance sociale, qui constitue la caractéristique principale de ce plan, chaque citoyen en âge de travailler va contribuer à sa classe appropriée en fonction de la sécurité dont il a besoin, ou comme une femme mariée aura contributions faites par le mari. Each will be covered for all his needs by a single weekly contribution on one insurance document. Chaque seront couverts pour tous ses besoins par un hebdomadaire cotisation unique sur un document d’assurance. All the principal cash payments-for unemployment, disability and retirement win continue so long as the need lasts, without means test, and will be paid from a Social Insurance Fund built up by contributions from the insured persons, from their employers, if any, and from the State. Tous les principaux paiements en espèces, de chômage, d’invalidité et de retraite gagner continuer aussi longtemps que dure la nécessité, sans condition de ressources, et sera payé à partir d’un fonds d’assurance sociale constitué par les cotisations des assurés, de leurs employeurs, le cas échéant, et de l’État. This is in accord with two views as Ceci est en accord avec les deux points de vue to the lines on which the problem of income maintenance should be approached. pour les lignes sur lesquelles le problème du maintien du revenu devrait être abordée.

21. 21. The first view is that benefit in return for contributions, rather than free La première vue est que des avantages en échange de contributions, plutôt que libre allowances from the State, is what the people of Britain desire. les allocations de l’État, est ce que les gens du désir Grande-Bretagne. This desire Ce désir is shown both by the established popularity of compulsory insurance, and by the phenomenal growth of voluntary insurance against sickness, against death and for endowment, and most recently for hospital treatment It is shown in another way by the strength of popular objection to any kind of means test. est montré à la fois par la popularité constante de l’assurance obligatoire, et par la croissance phénoménale de l’assurance volontaire contre la maladie, contre la mort et de dotation, et plus récemment pour un traitement hospitalier, il est indiqué d’une autre manière par la force d’opposition populaire à tout type de des moyens de test. This objection springs not so much from a desire to get everything for nothing, as from resentment at a provision which appears to penalise what people have come to regard as the duty and pleasure of thrift, of putting pennies away for a rainy day. Cette objection ressorts non pas tant par un désir d’obtenir tout pour rien, que du ressentiment à une disposition qui semble sanctionner ce que les gens sont venus à considérer que le devoir et le plaisir de l’épargne, de mettre quelques sous loin pour un jour de pluie. Management of one’s income is an essential element of a citizen’s freedom. Payment of a substantial part of the cost of benefit as a contribution irrespective of the means of the contributor is the firm basis of a claim to benefit irrespective of means. Gestion de ses revenus est un élément essentiel de la liberté d’un citoyen. Le paiement d’une partie substantielle du coût de la prestation en tant que contribution quel que soit le moyen de le cotisant est la base solide d’une demande de prestations sans conditions de ressources.

22. 22. The second view is that whatever money is required for provision of insurance benefits, so long as they are needed, should come from a Fund to which the recipients have contributed and to which they may be required to make larger contributions if the Fund proves inadequate. Le second point de vue est que tout l’argent est nécessaire pour la fourniture de prestations d’assurance, tant qu’ils sont nécessaires, doivent provenir d’un fonds dont les bénéficiaires ont contribué et auxquelles ils peuvent être tenus de faire des contributions plus importantes si le Fonds se révèle insuffisante. The plan adopted since 1930 in regard to prolonged unemployment and sometimes suggested for prolonged disability, that the State should take this burden off insurance, in order to keep the contribution down, is wrong in principle. Le plan adopté depuis 1930 en matière de chômage prolongé et parfois suggéré d’invalidité prolongée, que l’Etat doit prendre cette charge hors assurance, afin de maintenir la contribution vers le bas, est mauvais en principe. The insured persons should not feel that income for idleness, however caused, can come from a bottomless purse. Les assurés ne devraient pas l’impression que le revenu de l’oisiveté, soit la cause, peuvent provenir d’une bourse sans fond. The Government should not feel that by paying doles it can avoid the major responsibility of seeing that unemployment and disease are reduced to the minimum. The place for direct expenditure and organisation by the State is in maintaining employment of the labour and other productive resources of the country, and in preventing and combating disease, not in patching an incomplete scheme of insurance. Le gouvernement ne devrait pas se sentir qu’en payant aumônes qu’il peut éviter la responsabilité majeure de voir que le chômage et la maladie sont réduites au minimum. Le lieu pour les dépenses directes et de l’organisation par l’État est dans le maintien de l’emploi de la main-d’œuvre et autres ressources productives de la pays, et dans la prévention et la lutte contre la maladie, pas de colmatage d’un régime d’assurance incomplète.

23. 23. The State cannot be excluded altogether from giving direct assistance to individuals in need, after examination of their means. L’État ne peut pas être complètement exclu de donner une aide directe aux personnes dans le besoin, après examen de leurs moyens. However comprehensive an insurance scheme, some, through physical infirmity, can never contribute at all and some will fall through the meshes of any insurance. Cependant un régime d’assurance globale, certains, par suite d’infirmité physique, ne peut jamais contribuer à tous et certains vont tomber dans les mailles de toute assurance. The making of insurance benefit without means test unlimited in duration involves of itself that conditions must be imposed at some stage or another as to how men in receipt of benefit shall use their time, so as to fit themselves or to keep themselves fit for service ; imposition of any condition means that the condition may not be fulfilled and that a case of assistance may arise. La réalisation de prestations d’assurance sans condition de ressources illimitées dans le temps implique de lui-même que des conditions doivent être imposées à un moment ou un autre sur la façon dont les hommes dans la réception des prestations est l’utilisation de leur temps, de sorte que pour s’insérer ou à se maintenir en état de servir ; imposition de toute condition signifie que l’état ne peuvent pas être remplies et que le cas de l’aide peuvent se poser. Moreover for one of the main purposes of social insurance-provision for old age or retirement-the contributory principle implies contribution for a substantial number of years ; in the introduction of adequate contributory pensions there must be a period of transition during which those who have not qualified for pension by contribution but are in need have their needs met by assistance pensions. En outre, pour l’un des principaux objectifs de la prestation de l’assurance sociale pour la vieillesse ou la retraite, le principe contributif implique la contribution d’un nombre important d’années, dans l’introduction de adéquats pensions contributives il doit y avoir une période de transition au cours de laquelle ceux qui n’ont pas qualifiés pour la pension par un apport, mais sont dans le besoin ont leurs besoins comblés par les pensions d’assistance. National assistance is an essential subsidiary method in the whole Plan for Social Security , and the work of the Assistance Board shows that assistance subject to means test can be administered with sympathetic justice and discretion taking full account of individual circumstances. l’aide nationale est une méthode filiale essentiel dans tout le plan de la sécurité sociale, et les travaux de la Commission d’aide montre que l’objet de l’aide aux moyens de test peut être administré avec justice sympathique et discrétion, en tenant pleinement compte des circonstances individuelles. But the scope of assistance will be narrowed from the beginning and will diminish throughout the transition period for pensions. Mais la portée de l’aide sera réduit dès le début et diminuera pendant toute la période de transition pour les pensions. The scheme of social insurance is designed of itself when in full operation to guarantee the income needed for subsistence in all normal cases. Le régime d’assurance sociale est conçu de lui-même quand en pleine opération de garantir le revenu nécessaire pour assurer leur subsistance dans tous les cas normaux.

24. 24. The scheme is described as a scheme of insurance, because it preserves the contributory principle. Le régime est décrit comme un régime d’assurance, car elle préserve le principe contributif. It is described as social insurance to mark important distinctions from voluntary insurance. Il est décrit comme l’assurance sociale pour marquer des distinctions importantes de l’assurance volontaire. In the first place, while adjustment of premiums to risks is of the essence of voluntary insurance, since without this individuals would not of their own will insure, this adjustment is not essential in insurance which is made compulsory by the power of the State. En premier lieu, si l’ajustement des primes de risques est de l’essence de l’assurance volontaire, car sans cette individus ne seraient pas de leur propre volonté d’assurer, cet ajustement n’est pas essentiel dans l’assurance qui est rendu obligatoire par la puissance de l’État. In the second place, in providing for actuarial risks such as those of death, old age or sickness, it is necessary in voluntary insurance to fund contributions paid in early life in order to provide for the increasing risks of later life and to accumulate reserves against individual liabilities. En second lieu, en prévoyant des risques actuariels, comme celles de la mort, la vieillesse ou de maladie, il est nécessaire à une assurance volontaire pour financer les cotisations versées au début de la vie afin de prévoir l’augmentation des risques de la vie plus tard et à accumuler des réserves contre responsabilités individuelles. The State with its power of compelling successive generations of citizens to become insured and its power of taxation is not under the necessity of accumulating reserves for actuarial risks and has not, in fact, adopted this method in the past. L’Etat de son pouvoir de contraindre les générations successives de citoyens à devenir des assurés et son pouvoir de taxation n’est pas dans la nécessité d’accumuler des réserves pour risques actuariels et n’a pas, en effet, adopté cette méthode dans le passé. The second of these two distinctions is one of financial practice only ; the first raises important questions of policy and equity. Le second de ces deux distinctions est l’une des pratiques financières seulement, la première soulève d’importantes questions de politique et d’équité. Though the State, in conducting compulsory insurance, is not under the necessity of varying the premium according to the risk, it may decide as a matter of policy to do so. Bien que l’État, dans la conduite de l’assurance obligatoire, n’est pas dans la nécessité de varier les primes en fonction du risque, il peut décider en tant que question de politique de le faire.

25. 25. When State insurance began in Britain, it was felt that compulsory insurance should be like voluntary insurance in adjusting premiums to risks. Lorsque l’assurance État a commencé en Grande-Bretagne, on a estimé que l’assurance obligatoire devrait être comme l’assurance volontaire dans l’ajustement des primes de risques. This was secured in health insurance by the system of Approved Societies. Cela a été obtenu dans l’assurance santé par le système des sociétés agréées. It was intended to be secured in unemployment insurance by variation of contribution rates between industries as soon as accurate valuation became possible, by encouragement of special schemes of insurance by industry, and by return of contributions to individuals who made no claims. Il était destiné à être fixé dans l’assurance-chômage par la variation des taux de cotisation entre les industries, dès que l’évaluation précise est devenu possible, par un encouragement des régimes spéciaux d’assurance par l’industrie, et par le remboursement des cotisations à des personnes qui ne formulent aucune demande. In the still earlier institution of workmen’s compensation, adjustment of premiums to industrial risks was a necessary consequence of the form in which provision for industrial accidents was made, by placing liability on employers individually and leaving them to insure voluntarily against their liability. Dans la première institution encore de l’indemnisation des travailleurs, l’ajustement des primes de risques industriels est une conséquence nécessaire de la forme sous laquelle la fourniture des accidents du travail a été fait, en plaçant la responsabilité sur les employeurs, individuellement et en les laissant dans l’assurance volontaire contre leur responsabilité. In the thirty years since 1912, there has been an unmistakable movement of public opinion away from these original ideas, that is to say, away from the principle of adjusting premiums to risks in compulsory insurance and in favour of pooling risks. En trente ans, depuis 1912, il a été un mouvement non équivoque de l’opinion publique loin de ces idées originales, c’est-à-dire l’abandon du principe de l’ajustement des primes de risques dans l’assurance obligatoire et en faveur de la mise en commun des risques. This change has been most marked and most complete in regard to unemployment, where, in the general scheme, insurance by industry, in place of covering a large part of the field, has been reduced to historical exceptions ; today the common argument is that the volume of unemployment in an industry is not to any effective extent within its control ; that all industries depend upon one another, and that those which are fortunate in being regular should share the cost of unemployment in those which are less regular. The same tendency of opinion in favour of pooling of social risks has shown itself in the views expressed by the great majority of witnesses to the present Committee in regard to health insurance. Ce changement a été la plus marquée et la plus complète en matière de chômage, où, dans le régime général, l’assurance par l’industrie, au lieu de couvrir une grande partie du champ, a été réduit d’exceptions historiques, aujourd’hui l’argument commun est que le volume de chômage dans un secteur n’est pas à toute mesure efficace au sein de son contrôle, que toutes les industries dépendent les uns des autres, et que ceux qui sont heureux d’être réguliers devraient se partager le coût du chômage dans ceux qui sont moins régulières. La même tendance de avis favorable à la mutualisation des risques sociaux s’est montré dans les vues exprimées par la grande majorité des témoins de la présente commission en ce qui concerne l’assurance maladie. In regard to workmen’s compensation, the same argument has been put by the Mineworkers’ Federation to the Royal Commission on Workmen s Compensation ; as other industries cannot exist without coalmining, they have proposed that employers in all industries should bear equally the cost of industrial accidents and disease, in coalmining as elsewhere. En ce qui concerne l’indemnisation des travailleurs, le même argument a été mis par les mineurs Fédération à la Commission royale sur les ouvriers de la rémunération, comme les autres industries ne peut exister sans l’industrie charbonnière, ils ont proposé que les employeurs dans tous les secteurs devraient porter également le coût des accidents du travail et la maladie, en charbon comme ailleurs.

26. 26. There is here an issue of principle and practice on which strong arguments can be advanced on each side by reasonable men. Il ya là une question de principe et la pratique à laquelle de solides arguments peuvent être avancés de chaque côté par des hommes raisonnables. But the general tendency of public opinion seems clear. Mais la tendance générale de l’opinion publique semble clair. After trial of a different principle, it has been found to accord best with the sentiments of the British people that in insurance organised by the community by use of compulsory power, each individual should stand in on the same terms ; none should claim to pay less because he is healthier or has more regular employment. Après le procès d’un principe différent, il a été constaté au meilleur accord avec les sentiments du peuple britannique que dans l’assurance organisée par la communauté par l’utilisation de la puissance obligatoire, chaque individu devrait être maintenue dans les mêmes conditions, aucune réclamation devrait payer moins parce qu’il est plus sain ou plus a un emploi régulier. In accord with that view, the proposals of the Report mark another step forward to the development of State insurance as a new type of human institution, differing both from the former methods of preventing or alleviating distress and from voluntary insurance. En accord avec ce point de vue, les propositions de la marque Rapport d’un autre pas en avant pour le développement de l’assurance d’État comme un nouveau type d’institution humaine, qui diffère à la fois des méthodes anciennes de prévenir ou de soulager la détresse et de l’assurance volontaire. The term "social insurance" to describe this institution implies both that it is compulsory and that men stand together with their fellows. Le terme « assurance sociale » pour décrire cette institution implique à la fois qu’il est obligatoire et que les hommes sont solidaires avec leurs congénères. The term implies a pooling of risks except so far as separation of risks serves a social purpose. Le terme implique une mutualisation des risques, sauf pour autant que la séparation des risques répond à une finalité sociale. There may be reasons of social policy for adjusting premiums to risks, in order to give a stimulus for avoidance of danger, as in the case of industrial accident and disease. Il peut y avoir des raisons de politique sociale pour régler les primes de risques, afin de donner une impulsion pour éviter tout danger, comme dans le cas d’accident du travail et les maladies. There is no longer an admitted claim of the individual citizen to share in national insurance and yet to stand outside it, keeping the advantage of his individual lower risk whether of unemployment or of disease or accident. Il n’est plus une créance admise du citoyen à part dans l’assurance nationale et encore à subir l’extérieur, en gardant l’avantage de personne risque plus faible de son si de chômage ou de maladie ou d’accident.

PROVISIONAL RATES OF BENEFIT AND CONTRIBUTION PRIX PROVISOIRE DE PRESTATIONS ET CONTRIBUTION

27. 27. Social insurance should aim at guaranteeing the minimum income needed for subsistence. L’assurance sociale devraient viser à garantir le revenu minimum nécessaire pour assurer leur subsistance. What the actual rates of benefit and contribution should be in terms of money cannot be settled now, and that for two reasons. Ce que le taux effectif de la prestation et la contribution devrait être en termes d’argent ne peut être réglé maintenant, et cela pour deux raisons. First, it is impossible today to forecast with assurance the level of prices after the war. Tout d’abord, il est aujourd’hui impossible de prévoir avec assurance le niveau des prix après la guerre. Second, determination of what is required for reasonable human subsistence is to some extent a matter of judgment ; estimates on this point change with time, and generally, in a progressive community, change upwards. Deuxièmement, la détermination de ce qui est nécessaire pour la subsistance de l’homme raisonnable est dans une certaine mesure une question de jugement ; sur ce point avec le changement de temps, et généralement, dans une progressive, de la communauté vers le haut le changement des estimations. The procedure adopted to deal with this problem has been : first, from consideration of subsistence needs, as given by impartial expert authorities, to determine the weekly incomes which would have been sufficient for subsistence in normal cases at prices ruling in 1938 ; second, to derive from these the rates appropriate to a cost of living about 25% above that of 1938. La procédure adoptée pour faire face à ce problème a été : d’abord, de l’examen des besoins de subsistance, comme indiqué par les autorités expert impartial, afin de déterminer les revenus hebdomadaires qui aurait été suffisante pour assurer leur subsistance dans les cas normaux aux prix en vigueur en 1938, d’autre part, à découlent de ces taux, la cas échéant à un coût de la vie d’environ 25% supérieur à celui de 1938. These rates of benefit, pension and grant are set out in para. Ces taux des prestations, de retraite et de subvention sont énoncées à l’al. 401 as provisional post-war rates ; by reference to them it is possible to set forth simply what appears to be the most appropriate relation between different benefits and what would be the cost of each benefit and of all benefits together ; it is possible to show benefits in relation to contributions and taxation. 401 comme provisoire-guerre taux poste ; par rapport à eux, il est possible d’énoncer simplement ce qui semble être le rapport le plus approprié entre les différentes prestations et quel serait le coût de chaque prestation et de tous les avantages ensemble, il est possible de montrer avantages par rapport aux cotisations et la fiscalité. But the provisional rates themselves are not essential. Mais le taux provisoire eux-mêmes ne sont pas essentiels. If the value of money when the scheme comes into operation differs materially from the assumptions on which the provisional rates are based, the rates could be changed without affecting the scheme in any important particular. Si la valeur de l’argent lorsque le régime de l’entrée en opération diffère sensiblement des hypothèses sur lesquelles les taux provisoires sont fondés, les tarifs peuvent être changés sans affecter le régime de toute importance particulière. If social policy should demand benefits on a higher scale than subsistence, the whole level of benefit and contribution rates could be raised without affecting the structure of the scheme. Si la politique sociale doit exiger des prestations sur une plus grande échelle que de subsistance, le niveau de l’ensemble des prestations et les taux de cotisation pourrait être soulevée sans affecter la structure du régime. If social policy or financial stringency should dictate benefits on a lower scale, benefits and contributions could be lowered, though not perhaps so readily or without some adjustments within the scheme. Si la politique sociale ou la rigueur financière devrait dicter des avantages à une moindre échelle, les prestations et les contributions peuvent être abaissés, mais peut-être pas si facilement ou sans quelques ajustements au sein du régime.

28. 28. The most important of the provisional rates is the rate of 40/- a week for a man and wife in unemployment and disability and after the transition in addition to allowances for children at an average of 8/- per head per week. La plus importante des taux provisoire est le taux de 40 / - une semaine pour un homme et la femme en matière de chômage et d’invalidité et après la transition en plus des allocations pour les enfants à une moyenne de 8 / - par tête et par semaine. These amounts represent a large addition to existing benefits. Ces montants représentent une plus grande aux prestations existantes. They will mean that in unemployment and disability a man and wife if she is not working, with two children, will receive 56/- a week without means test so long as unemployment or disability lasts, as compared with the 33/- in unemployment and the 15/- or 7/6 in sickness, with additional benefit in some Approved Societies, which they were getting before the war. Ils signifient que, dans le chômage et l’invalidité d’un homme et la femme si elle ne fonctionne pas, avec deux enfants, recevront 56 / - Une semaine sans condition de ressources tant que le chômage ou l’invalidité dure, par rapport au 33 / - du chômage et le 15 / - ou 7 / 6 dans la maladie, avec des avantages supplémentaires dans certaines sociétés approuvées, dont ils recevaient avant la guerre. For married women gainfully occupied, there will be a maternity benefit at the rate of 36/- a week for 13 weeks, in addition to the maternity grant of £4 available for all married women.. Pour les femmes mariées ayant une occupation rémunérée, il y aura des prestations de maternité au taux de 36 / - par semaine pendant 13 semaines, en plus de l’allocation de maternité de £ 4 disponible pour toutes les femmes mariées .. Other rates, as for widowhood and for industrial disability, show similar increases, as set out in detail in paragraph. Les autres taux, comme pour le veuvage et d’invalidité industriels, montrent des augmentations similaires, comme indiqué en détail dans le paragraphe. 284, in dealing with the Social Security Budget. There will be new benefits for funerals, marriage and other needs, as well as comprehensive medical treatment, both domiciliary and institutional, for all citizens and their dependants which, subject to further enquiry suggested in para. 437, will be without a charge on treatment at any point. At these provisional rates, the total Security Budget, including children’s allowances and free health and rehabilitation services, is estimated to amount to £697,000,000 in 1945 as the first year of the plan, and £858,000,000 twenty years after, in 1965. The extent to which these sums represent new expenditure which is not now being incurred and the division of the total cost between insured persons, their employers and the Exchequer are discussed in Part IV of the Report and provisional rates of contribution are suggested in para. 403. 403. The most important of these is the contribution of 4/3 a week by an adult man in employment and 3/3 a week from his employer. At this rate, with corresponding rates for other classes, the contribution of insured employees in class I for cash benefits, when the plan, including contributory pensions, is in full operation, is estimated to amount to about 25 per cent. of the cost of their cash benefits exclusive of allowances for children ; the balance will be provided by the employers’ contributions and by taxation based on capacity to pay. At the outset, the contributions of insured persons will represent a larger proportion of the total cost ; the net addition to the burden on the National Exchequer in the first year, as compared with expenditure under the existing arrangements, will be about £86,000,000.

29. 29. The attempt to fix rates of insurance benefit and pension on a scientific basis with regard to subsistence needs has brought to notice a serious difficulty in doing so in the conditions of modern Britain. This is the problem of rent discussed in paras. 197-216. In this as in other respects, the framing of a satisfactory scheme of social security depends on the solution of other problems of economic and social organisation. But subject to unavoidable difficulties in giving a numerical value to the conception of a subsistence minimum, the scheme of social insurance outlined in this Report provides insurance benefit adequate to all normal needs, in duration and in amount. It is at the same time a scheme from which the anomalies and overlapping, the multiplicity of agencies and the needless administrative cost which mark the British Social Services today, have been removed and have been replaced by co-ordination, simplicity and economy.

UNIFIED SOCIAL SECURITY AND THE CHANGES INVOLVED

30. 30. The advantages of unified social security are great and unquestionable. They can be obtained only at the cost of changes in the present administrative machinery whose necessity needs to be proved and can be proved case by case. The principal changes from present practice that are involved in the plan are set out below. The reasons for each of these changes are given in Part II in one or two cases they are set out there only briefly, in anticipation of fuller discussion.

1 . 1. Unification of social insurance in respect of contributions, that is to say, enabling each insured person to- obtain all benefits by a single weekly contribution on a single document (paras. 41-43).

2. Unification of social insurance and assistance in respect of administration in a Ministry of Social Security with local Security Offices within reach of all insured persons (paras. 44-47).

3. Supersession of the present system of Approved Societies giving unequal benefits for equal compulsory contributions [combined with retention of Friendly Societies and Trade Unions giving sickness benefit as responsible agents for the administration of State benefit as well as voluntary benefit for their members] (paras. 48-76).

4. Supersession of the present scheme of workmen’s compensation and inclusion of provision for industrial accident or disease within the unified social insurance scheme, subject to (a) a special method of meeting the cost of this provision, and (b) special pensions for prolonged disability and grants to dependants in cases of death due to such causes (paras. 77-105).

5. Separation of medical treatment from the administration of cash benefits and the setting up of a comprehensive medical service for every citizen, covering all treatment and ever y form of disability under the supervision of the Health Departments (para. 106).

6. Recognition of housewives as a distinct insurance class of occupied persons with benefits adjusted to their special needs, including (a) in all cases [marriage grant], maternity grant, widowhood and separation provisions and retirement pensions ; (b) if not gainfully occupied, benefit during husband’s unemployment or disability ; (c) if gainfully occupied, special maternity benefit in addition to grant, and lower unemployment and disability benefits, accompanied by abolition of the Anomalies Regulations for Married Women (paras. 107-117).

7. Extension of insurance against prolonged disability to all persons gainfully occupied and of insurance for retirement pensions to all persons of working age, whether gainfully occupied or not (paras. 118-121).

8. Provision of training benefit to facilitate change to new occupations of all persons who lose their former livelihood, whether paid or unpaid (para. 122).

9. Assimilation of benefit and pension rates for unemployment, disability. other than prolonged disability due to industrial accident or disease, and retirement (para. 123).

10. Assimilation of benefit conditions for unemployment and disability including disability due to industrial accident or disease, in respect of waiting time (paras. 124-126).

11. Assimilation of contribution conditions for unemployment and disability benefit, except where disability is due to industrial accident or disease, and revision of contribution conditions for pension (paras. 127-128).

12. Making of unemployment benefit at full rate indefinite in duration, subject to requirement of attendance at a work or training centre after a limited period of unemployment (paras. 129-132).

13. Making of disability benefit at full rate indefinite in duration, subject to imposition of special behaviour conditions (paras. 129-132).

14. Making of pensions, other than industrial, conditional on retirement from work and rising in value with each year of continued contribution after the minimum age of retirement, that is to say, after 65 for men and 60 for women (paras. 133-136).

15. Amalgamation of the special schemes of unemployment insurance, for agriculture, banking and finance and insurance, with the general scheme of social insurance (paras. 137-148).

16. Abolition of the exceptions from insurance

(a) of persons in particular occupations, such as the civil service, local government service, police, nursing, railways, and other pensionable employments, and, in respect of unemployment insurance, private indoor domestic service ;

(b) of persons remunerated above £420 a year in non-manual occupations (paras. 149-152).

17. Replacement of unconditional inadequate widows’ pensions by provision suited to the varied needs of widows, including temporary widows’ benefit at a special rate in all cases, training benefit when required and guardian benefit so long as there are dependent children (paras.’153-156).

18 . Inclusion of universal funeral grant in compulsory insurance (paras. 157-160).

19. Transfer to the Ministry of Social Security of the remaining functions of Local Authorities in respect of public assistance, other than treatment and services of an institutional character (paras. 161-165).

20. Transfer to the Ministry of Social Security of responsibility for the maintenance of blind persons and the framing of a new scheme for maintenance and welfare by co-operation between the Ministry , Local Authorities and voluntary agencies (paras. 166-170).

21. Transfer to the Ministry of Social Security of the functions of the Assistance Board, of the work of the Customs and Excise Department in respect of non-contributory pensions, and probably of the employment service of the Ministry of Labour and National Service, in addition to unemployment insurance, and the work of other departments in connection with the administration of cash benefits of all kinds, including workmen’s compensation (paras. 171-175).

22. Substitution for the Unemployment Insurance Statutory Committee of a Social Insurance Statutory Committee with similar but extended powers (paras. 176-180).

[23. Conversion of the business of industrial assurance into a public service under an Industrial Assurance Board.] (paras. 181-192).

31.This considerable list of changes does not mean that, in the proposals of the Report, either the experience or the achievements of the past are forgotten. What is proposed today for unified social security springs out of what has been accomplished in building up security piece by piece. It retains the contributory principle of sharing the cost of security between three parties -the insured person himself, his employer, if he has an employer, and the State. It retains and extends the principle that compulsory insurance should provide a flat rate of benefit, irrespective of earnings, in return for a flat contribution from all. It retains as the best method of contribution the system of insurance documents and insurance stamps. It builds upon the experience gained in the administration of unemployment insurance and later of unemployment assistance, of a national administration which is not centralised at Whitehall but is carried out through responsible regional and local officers, acting at all points in close co-operation with representatives of the communities which they serve. It provides for retaining on a new basis the association of Friendly Societies with national health insurance. It provides for retaining within the general framework of a unified scheme some of the special features of workmen’s compensation and for converting the associations for mutual indemnity in the industries chiefly concerned into new organs of industrial co-operation and self-government. While completing the transfer from local to national government of assistance by cash payments, it retains a vital place for Local Authorities in the provision of institutions and in the organisation and maintenance of services connected with social welfare. The scheme proposed here is in some ways a revolution, but in more important ways it is a natural development from the past. It is a British revolution.

32. 32. The Plan for Social Security is put forward as something that could be in operation in the immediate aftermath of the war. In the Memorandum by the Government Actuary on the financial aspects of the plan, which is printed as Appendix A to the Report, it is assumed, for the purpose of relating the estimates of expenditure to the numbers of the population, that the plan will begin to operate on 1 st July, 1944, so that the first full year of benefit will be the calendar year 1945. But in view of the legislative and administrative work involved in bringing the plan into force, so early a date as this will be possible only if a decision of principle on the plan is taken in the near future by the Government and by Parliament.

PART V

PLAN FOR SOCIAL SECURITY

ASSUMPTIONS, METHODS AND PRINCIPLES

300. 300. Scope of Social Security : The term " social security " is used here to denote the securing of an income to take the place of earnings when they are interrupted by unemployment, sickness or accident, to provide for retirement through age, to provide against loss of support by the death of another person, and to meet exceptional expenditures, such as those connected with birth, death and marriage. Primarily social security means security. of income up to a minimum, but the provision of an income should be associated with treatment designed to bring the interruption of earnings to an end as soon as possible.

301. Three Assumptions : No satisfactory scheme of social security can be devised except on the following assumptions

(A) Children’s allowances for children up to the age of 15 or if in full-time education up to the age of 16

(B) Comprehensive health and rehabilitation services for prevention and cure of disease and restoration of capacity for work, available to all members of the community ;

(C) Maintenance of employment, that is to say avoidance of mass unemployment.

The grounds for making these three assumptions, the methods of satisfying them and their relation to the social security scheme are discussed in Part VI. Children’s allowances will be added to all the insurance benefits and Pensions described below in paras. 320-349.

302. 302. Three Methods of Security : On these three assumptions, a Plan for Social Security is outlined below, combining three distinct methods : social insurance for basic needs ; national assistance for special cases ; voluntary insurance for additions to the basic provision. Social insurance means the providing of cash payments conditional upon compulsory contributions previously made by, or on behalf of, the insured persons-, irrespective of the resources of the individual at the time of the claim. Social insurance is much the most important of the three methods and is proposed here in a form as comprehensive as possible. But while social insurance can, and should, be the main instrument for guaranteeing income security, it cannot be the only one. It needs to be supplemented both by national assistance and by voluntary insurance. National assistance means the giving of cash payments conditional upon proved need at the time of the claim, irrespective of previous contributions but adjusted by consideration of individual circumstances and paid from the national exchequer. Assistance is an indispensable supplement to social insurance, however the scope of the latter may be widened. In addition to both of these there is place for voluntary insurance. Social insurance and national assistance organised by the State are designed to guarantee, on condition of service, a basic income for subsistence. The actual incomes and by consequence the normal standards of expenditure of different sections of the population differ greatly Making provision for these higher standards is primarily the function of the individual that is to say, it is a matter for free choice and voluntary insurance. But the State should make sure that its measures leave room and encouragement. for such voluntary insurance. The social insurance scheme is the greater part of the Plan for Social Security and its description occupies most of this Part of the Report. But the plan includes national assistance and voluntary insurance as well.

303. 303. Six Principles of Social Insurance : The social insurance scheme set out below as the chief method of social security embodies six fundamental principles

Flat rate of subsistence benefit
Flat rate of contribution
Unification of administrative responsibility
Adequacy of benefit
Comprehensiveness
Classification Classification

304. 304. Flat Rate of Subsistence Benefit : The first fundamental principle of the social insurance scheme is provision of a flat rate of insurance benefit, irrespective of the amount of the earnings which have been interrupted by unemployment or disability or ended by retirement ; exception is made only where prolonged disability has resulted from an industrial accident or disease. This principle follows from the recognition of the, place and importance of voluntary insurance in social security and distinguishes the scheme proposed. for Britain from the security schemes of Germany, the Soviet Union, the United States and most other countries with the exception of New Zealand. The flat rate is the same for all the principal forms of cessation of earning unemployment, disability, retirement ; for maternity and for widowhood there is a temporary benefit at a higher rate.

305. Flat Rate of Contribution : The second fundamental principle of the scheme is that the compulsory contribution required of each insured person or his employer is at a flat rate, irrespective of his means. All insured persons, rich or poor pay the same contributions for the same security ; those with larger means will pay more only to the extent that as tax-payers they pay more to the national Exchequer and so to the State share of the Social Insurance Fund. This feature distinguishes the scheme proposed for Britain from the scheme recently established in New Zealand under which the contributions are graduated by income, and are in effect an income-tax assigned to a particular service. Subject moreover to one exception, the contribution will be the same irrespective of the assumed degree of risk affecting particular individuals or forms of employment. The exception is the raising of a proportion of the special cost of benefits and pensions for industrial disability in occupations of high risk by a levy on employers proportionate to risk and payroll (paras 86-90 and 360).

306. Unification of Administrative Responsibility : The third fundamental principle is Unification of administrative responsibility in the interests of efficiency and economy. For each insured person there will be a single weekly contribution, in respect of all his benefits. There will be in each locality a Security Office able to deal with claims of every kind and all sides of security. The methods of paying different kinds of cash benefit will be different and will take account of the circumstances of insured persons, providing for payment at the home or elsewhere, as is necessary. All contributions will be paid into a single Social Insurance Fund and all benefits and other insurance payments will be paid from the fund.

307. 307. Adequacy of Benefit : the fourth fundamental principle is adequacy of benefit in amount and in time. The flat rate of benefit proposed is intended in itself to be sufficient without further resources to provide the minimum income needed for subsistence in all normal cases. It gives room and a basis for additional voluntary provision, but does not assume that in any case. The benefits are adequate also in time, that is to say except for contingencies of a temporary nature , they will continue indefinitely without means test, so long as the need continues, though subject to any change of conditions and treatment required by prolongation of the interruption in earning and occupation.

308. 308. Comprehensiveness : The fifth fundamental principle is that social insurance should be comprehensive, in respect both of the persons covered and of their needs. It should not leave either to national assistance or to voluntary insurance any risk so general or so uniform that social insurance can be justified. For national assistance involves a means test which may discourage voluntary insurance or personal saving. And voluntary insurance can never be sure of covering the ground. For any need moreover which, like direct funeral expenses, is so general and so uniform as to be a fit subject for insurance by compulsion, social insurance is much cheaper to administer than voluntary insurance.

309. 309. Classification : The sixth fundamental principle is that social insurance, while unified and comprehensive, must take account of the different ways of life of different sections of the community ; of those dependent on earnings by employment under contract of service, of those earning in other ways, of those rendering vital unpaid service as housewives, of those not yet of age to earn, and of those past earning. The term "classification" is used here to denote adjustment of insurance to the differing circumstances of each of these classes and to many varieties of need and circumstance within each insurance class. But the insurance classes are not economic or social classes

310. 310. Six Population Classes : the Plan for Social Security starts with consideration of the people and of their needs. From the point of view of social security the people of Britain fall into six main classes described briefly as I-Employees ; II-Others gainfully employed ; III-Housewives ; IV-Others of working age ; V-Below working age ; VI-Retired above working age. The precise definitions of each of these classes, the boundaries between them and the provision for passage from one to another are discussed in detail in paragraphs 314-319. The approximate numbers in each class and their relation to security needs, as listed in the following paragraph are given in table XVI. Some needs, for medical treatment and for burial are common to all classes. In addition to this, those in Class V (below working age) need children’s allowances, and those in class VI (Retired above working age) need pensions ; neither of these classes can be called on to contribute for social insurance. The other four classes all have different needs for which they will be insured by contributions made by or in respect of them. Class I (Employees), in addition to medical treatment, funeral expenses and pension, need security against interruption of earnings by unemployment and disability, however caused. Class II, ie, persons gainfully occupied otherwise than as employees, cannot be insured against loss of employment, but in addition to medical treatment, funeral expenses and pension they need provision for loss of earnings through disability and they need some provision for loss of livelihood. Class III (Housewives) not being gainfully occupied do not need compensation for loss of earnings through ’disability or otherwise, but, in addition to the common needs of treatment, funeral expenses and pension, they have a variety of special needs arising out of marriage. Class IV (Others of working age) is a heterogeneous class in which relatively few people remain for any large part of their lives : they all need provision for medical treatment, funeral expenses and retirement, and also for the risk of having to find a new means of livelihood.

311 Eight Primary Causes of Need  : The primary needs for social security are of eight kinds, reckoning the composite needs of a married woman as one and including also the needs of childhood (Assumption A) and the need for universal comprehensive medical treatment and rehabilitation (Assumption B). These needs are set out below ; to each there is attached in the security scheme a distinct insurance benefit or benefits. Assistance may enter to deal with any kind of need, where insurance benefit for any reason is inadequate or absent.

Unemployment : that is to say, inability to obtain employment by a person dependent on it and physically fit for it, met by unemployment benefit with removal and lodging grants.

Disability : that is to say, inability of a person of working age, through illness or accident, to pursue a gainful occupation, met by disability benefit and industrial pension.

Loss of Livelihood by person not dependent on paid employment, met by training benefit.

Retirement from occupation, paid or unpaid, through age, met by retirement pension.

Marriage needs of a woman, met by Housewive’s Policy including provision for

(1) Marriage, met by marriage grant.

(2) Maternity, met by maternity grant in all cases, and, in the case of a married woman in gainful occupation, also by maternity benefit for a period before and after confinement.

(3) Interruption or cessation of husband’s earnings by his unemployment, disability or retirement, met by share of benefit or pension with husband.

(4) Widowhood, met by provision varying according to circumstances Including temporary widow’s benefit for readjustment, guardian benefit while caring for children and training benefit if and when there are no children in need of care.

(5) Separation, ie end of husband’s maintenance by legal separation, or established desertion, met by adaptation of widowhood provisions, including separation benefit, guardian benefit and training benefit.

(6) Incapacity for household duties, met by provision of paid help in illness as part of treatment.

Funeral Expenses of self or any person for whom responsible, met by funeral grant.

Childhood, ’provided for by children’s allowances if in full-time education, till sixteen.

Physical Disease or Incapacity, met by medical treatment, domiciliary and institutional, for self and dependants in comprehensive health service and by post-medical rehabilitation.

312. O ther Needs : The needs listed in para. 311 are the only ones so general and so uniform as to be clearly fit subjects for compulsory insurance. There is, partly for historical reasons, a problem as to the provision to be made for fatal accidents and diseases arising out of employment, by means of an industrial grant. There are many other needs and risks which are sufficiently common to be suited for voluntary insurance, and to a varying extent are already covered by that method. They include a great variety of contingencies for which provision is made by life and endowment insurance ; there are risks of fire, theft, or accident ; there are exceptional expenditures such as those on holidays and education.

313. 313. Explanation of Terms : Before defining more closely the classes into which the people must be divided for purposes of social security, it is necessary to explain three terms. " Exception " means that certain types of persons are not within a particular class, though apart from the exception they would be ; exception is general, not individual, altering the definition of a class’. Exemption " means that a person though within a particular class is exempted individually from paying the contributions of that class ; his employer, if he has one, remains liable for contributions, but these contributions are not counted in judging of the insured person’s claim to benefit. " Excusal " means that contributions for which an insured person and his employer, if he has one, would otherwise be liable, are not required, but for the purpose of satisfying contribution conditions for benefit are deemed to have been paid ; excusal is normally conditional on the insured person proving that he is unemployed or incapable of work. Exemption and excusal are dealt with more fully in paras. 3

314. 314. Employees (Class I) : These are, in general, persons depending for their maintenance upon remuneration received under a contract of service, including apprenticeship. The exact boundaries of this class will be adjusted by certain exceptions and inclusions. There will also be provision for exemption, that is to say, for allowing persons who take work falling within Class I to escape payment of their contributions while still requiring contributions by the employer. Insured persons in this class will hold an employment book which they will present to the employer for stamping.

The principal exception suggested is for family employment, that is to say, employment of one member of a family by another forming part of the same household. This is a development of the existing exception of fathers, sons, daughters, etc., under Agricultural Unemployment Insurance, and is designed to prevent fictitious claims for benefit. Persons excluded from Class I by this exception will fall into Class II.

Persons in Class II or IV taking work temporarily under a contract of service will be allowed to claim exemption from their own contributions, and persons in Class Ill undertaking such work will be allowed to obtain exemption so long as they desire it. Exempt persons will present to the employer a special card to be stamped. by him with the employer’ contribution.

On the other hand, certain exceptions and exemptions under the present scheme will no longer apply.- In particular.-

  1. There will be no exception of employees on the ground of the regularity of their employment or that it entitles them to pension. The basis of the security scheme is that all should contribute compulsorily irrespective of their personal risk. For men in the Armed Forces special arrangements for contribution will secure their rights to the benefits of the scheme when they return to civil life. For men in the merchant service there will be special arrangements for contribution adjusted to the conditions of their employment.
  2. There will be no exception of any employees by a remuneration limit.
  3. The right of persons above normal working age to claim exemption will cease on the introduction of the principle that pension is payable only on retirement from work and that men and women reaching the ages of 65 and 60 respectively, will have the option either of continuing to work and contribute or of retiring on pension at any time thereafter.

The possibility of either including in Class I and so insuring against unemployment certain classes of persons who are not technically under a contract of service but work in effect for employers (eg manual labour contractors, out-workers and private nurses) or of insuring such classes by special schemes, taking account of their special circumstances, needs further exploration. In one of these classes for instance, namely nurses, in addition to the fact that nurses work sometimes under contract of service and sometimes not, there are special needs arising out of their exposure to infection and out of the urgency of their duties, rendering necessary the possibility of intervals for rest and recuperation. The problem of giving some income security under a special scheme to share fishermen should also be explored. As stated above, apprentices generally will be included in Class I, but special arrangements may be made in regard to their rate of contribution (see para. 408).

315. 315. Others Gainfully Occupied (Class II) : These are, in general, all persons working for gain who are not in Class I. Most of these will be persons working on their own account as employers or by themselves, including shopkeepers and hawkers, farmers, small holders and crofters, share fishermen, entertainers and renderers of professional and personal service and out-workers. They will include also persons who, though technically under contract of service, are excepted from Class I on the ground of family employment. Apart from the possibilities whose exploration is proposed above, persons gainfully occupied otherwise than under contract of service will not be insured against unemployment. Persons in Class II will pay contributions upon an occupation card. If a person in Class II gives up his independent occupation and takes insurable employment he will pass into Class I and will in due course acquire a claim to unemployment benefit in addition to the other benefits of Class II. If he takes insurable employment temporarily he will be allowed to work as an exempt person, ie only the employer’s contribution will be paid and he will neither contribute for unemployment nor acquire a right to unemployment benefit. Conversely, a person whose main occupation is employment under a contract of service but who also works regularly or occasionally at some other gainful occupation, will be able to obtain exemption from Class II contributions. Persons in Class II will be able to apply for exemption on the ground that their income is below a certain minimum, say £75 a year (para. 363).

316. 316. Housewives (Class III) : These are married women of working age living with their husbands. An housewife who undertakes paid work as well, either under a contract of service or otherwise, will have the choice either of contributing in the ordinary way in Class 1 or Class II as the case may be, or of working as an exempt person, paying no contributions of her own

317. 317. Others of Working Age (Class IV) . These are in the main students above 16, unmarried women engaged in domestic duties not for pay, persons of private means, and persons incapacitated by blindness or other physical infirmity without being qualified for benefits under the social insurance scheme. The last of these groups will be a diminishing one. Blindness and other physical infirmities will occur in most cases after people have had a chance of contributing under the scheme and qualifying for disability benefit. At the outset there will be a number of people who became incapacitated before the scheme began. After the scheme has been established, persons in receipt of any benefit or pension in respect of contributions in other classes will be treated as still belonging to those classes and not as in Class IV. Those incapacitated or in institutions will be subject to the special arrangements appropriate in each case. All the others in Class IV will be required to hold security cards and to pay contributions thereon unless and until they pass into another class. This security card must be produced to obtain an employment book or occupation card. Persons in Class IV will be able to apply for exemption from contributions on the ground that their total income is below a certain minimum, say £75 a year (para. 363).

318. 318. Below Working Age (Class V) : This class will include all persons below 16 who are in full-time education, whether compulsorily or voluntarily.

319. 319. Retired Above Working Age (Class VI) : The minimum pensionable age for retirement on social insurance pension will be 65 for men and 60 for women, but persons who continue to work after these ages will pay contributions in the ordinary way and will be treated as belonging to Class 1 or Class II.


Source : Source :


This text is part of the Internet Modern History Sourcebook . The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted texts for introductory level classes in modern European and World history.

Unless otherwise indicated the specific electronic form of the document is copyright. Permission is granted for electronic copying, distribution in print form for educational purposes and personal use. If you do reduplicate the document, indicate the source. No permission is granted for commercial use of the Sourcebook.

Paul Halsall, January 1999
halsall@fordham.edu

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
Texte anglais original :
The procedure adopted to deal with this problem has been : first, from consideration of subsistence needs, as given by impartial expert authorities, to determine the weekly incomes which would have been sufficient for subsistence in normal cases at prices ruling in 1938 ; second, to derive from these the rates appropriate to a cost of living about 25% above that of 1938.
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